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Diomede

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Διομήδη; Diomḗdē). [German version] [1]  Deïon  Deïon. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Mistress of Achilles Mistress of Achilles, daughter of Phorbas, one of the seven women of Lesbos whom Achilles took prisoner (Hom. Il. 9,128f.; 664f.). In the Iliad, she plays a secondary role to  Briseis and is rarely represented [1]. Together with Briseis and Iphis, she was depicted on a painting by Polygnotus in Delphi (Paus. 10,25,4). According to Zenod. in schol. Il 9,664a, D. was from Caria. Anth. Pal. 14,18 and 16,29 play with the double meaning of Διομήδης ἀνήρ; Diomḗdēs anḗr (‘Diomed…

Epicaste

(49 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐπικάστη; Epikástē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Augeias Daughter of  Augeias; mother of Thestalos (Thessalus) by Hercules (Apollod. 2,166). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] see Iocaste, mother and wife of Oedipus see  Iocaste, mother and wife of  Oedipus (Hom. Od. 11,271; Apollod. 3,48). Bloch, René (Berne)

Elephenor

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλεφήνωρ; Elephḗnōr). Son of Chalcodon, grandson of Abas and king of the  Abantes on Euboea. He was one of Helena's suitors (Apollod. 3,130) and the leader of the Abantes against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,540-541). He was expelled from Euboea following the accidental killing of his grandfather; for that reason, he was only able to call the Abantes to battle by shouting from a cliff top near Euboea (Lycoph. 1034 with Tzetz.). The sons of Theseus were among those who followed him to Troy (Paus. 1,17,6). E. was killed by  Agenor [5] (Hom. Il. 4,463-469). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography…

Balius

(134 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βάλιος, Βαλίας; Bálios, Balías) and Xanthus. Immortal horses of the Peleid  Achilles, who were born by the harpy Podarge to Zephyrus, god of the winds. Poseidon gave them to Peleus on his marriage to Thetis (Hom. Il. 16,148-154; Apollod. 3,170). Xanthus prophesied Achilles his approaching death (Hom. Il. 19,400-424). When he dies, B. and Xanthus want to leave the human sphere, but the gods order them to serve Achilles' son Neoptolemus and to carry him later to Elysium (Quint. Smyrn.…

Eunomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνομος; Eúnomos). [German version] [1] Cup-bearer and relative of king Oeneus Young cup-bearer and relative of King Oeneus. Hercules punches E. for his clumsiness, killing him, and then goes into voluntary exile in Trachis at the court of King Ceyx (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 2; Apollod. 2,150). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] King of Sparta Spartan king of the clan of the Eurypontids. Perhaps the name was however only inserted on the royal list as a personification of  Eunomia [1]. Hdt. 8,131 places E. between  Polydectes and  Charillus, Paus. 3…

Bormus

(99 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βῶρμος; Bôrmos). A handsome young Mariandynian (south coast of the Black Sea) who disappeared suddenly while he was out fetching water for reapers. According to Hsch (s.v. Β. 356) he was taken by nymphs. Another tradition reports that as the son of Titias, brother of Priolas and Mariandynus, he lost his life on a hunt (Nymphis of Heraclea FGrH 432 F5; Domitius Callistratus FGrH 433 F3; Poll. 4,54f.). The Mariandynians called out after him in laments during high summer. The oldest allusions to this are in Aesch. Pers. 937. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste 4…

Briseis

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισηίς; Brisēís). Prisoner of war and beloved of  Achilles who carried her off as booty in Lyrnessus (Mysia) after he had slain her husband and three brothers (Hom. Il. 2,688-693; 19,291-297). According to Il. 9,128-134; 270-276 (with schol. Il. 1,366), B. was one of seven girls whom Achilles had captured on Lesbos. In schol. Il. 1,392, B. is called Hippodamia. According to the Cypria, B. came from Pedasus in the Troad, another town that had been conquered by Achilles (schol. Il.…

Ichthyophagi

(131 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰχθυοφάγοι/ Ichthyophágoi, ‘fish-eaters’). Collective ethnographic term for coastal peoples who primarily live on fish. As a Utopian people residing at the ends of the then-known world, the I. are described as models of justice, but sometimes also as animal-like, living on a low civilizational level (Agatharchides of Cnidus, De Mari Erythro, fr. 31-49 = GGM 1, 129-141). Most frequently mentioned are the Ethiopian I. on the Red Sea, whom Herodotus reports as having been sent (in va…

Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, south of France or Spain), son of  Oceanus and  Tethys (Hes. Theog. 338).  Phaeon plunged into the E. from his sun wagon and his sisters ( Heliades) were turned into black poplars on the banks of the E., and their tears into amber (Eur. Hipp. 736-741; Ov. Met. 2,324; 365; Hyg. Fab. 152; 154). Since Hesiod, the E. is associated with the creation of…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …

Byblis

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βυβλίς, Βιβλίς; Byblís, Biblís). Daughter of Miletus and Eidothea, the daughter of Eurytus, or of Cyane, the daughter of Maeander. Her passionate love for her twin brother  Caunus drives him into exile and herself into death. In respect of her end, the stories vary: she hangs herself (Parthenius 11; Conon 2), she jumps off a cliff and is transformed into a hamadryad by nymphs (Ant. Lib. 30 according to Nicander), or she dissolves into tears and becomes a spring (Ov. Met. 9,450-665). According to Steph. Byz. (s.v. B.), B. is the eponym of the Phoenician town of Byblus. Bloch, …

Educa

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Edula, Edusa, Edulia). Roman ‘special deity’ ( Indigitamenta), which, according to Varro (antiquitates rerum divinarum 114 Cardauns) was named in Christian Polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11,8: Edula; Aug. Civ. 4,34; 6,9) together with  Potina. According to Varro in Non. 151, E. ( Edusa) supposedly watched over the food for the children. Sacrifices were made to her when children had their first meal. In Donat. Ter. Phorm. 1,1,15, her name is Edulia. According to [1], E. was originally a gens deity. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Altheim, Röm. Religionsgesch. 1,…

Euterpe

(151 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐτέρπη; Eutérpē; cf. τέρπειν; térpein, ‘giver of joy’). One of the nine  Muses, the daughter of Zeus and  Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 77; Apollod. 1,13; Orph. H. 76,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,1 b). Later texts describe flute playing as her particular responsibility (Hor. Carm. 1,1,33; schol. Eur. Rhes. 346; schol. Hes. Theog. 76). According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGrH 244 F 146) and Heraclid. fr. 159 Wehrli, E. was impregnated by Strymon and gave birth to  Rhesus (cf. Apollod. 1,18; sch…

Pygmies

(323 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Πυγμαῖοι/ Pygmaîoi; from πυγμή/ pygmḗ, 'fist'; hence 'mittens' [1]; Lat. Pygmaei). A dwarf people, generally located by ancient ethnography at the edge of the known world, i.e. in Africa (Aristot. Hist. an. 8,12,597a), India (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 45) and Thrace (Plin. HN 4,44). Pygmy is, however, also a general term for people of unusually short stature (Aristot. Gen. an. 2,8,749a 4-6). Mythology has pygmies originating from Gaea and Poseidon  (Hes. fr. 150,17-18 Merkelbach/West). Herodotus'…

Unicorn

(287 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (μονόκερως/ monókerōs, monoceros, unicornis). The unicorn was irrelevant to Graeco-Roman mythology; and it was not a theme in iconography (it is common, however, in mediaeval book illustration). Accounts of one-horned animals are more frequent, originating primarily from the Indian rhinoceros (Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 499b20; Aristot. Part. an. 3,2,663a20; Megasthenes FGrH 715 F 27b;  Ael. NA 3,41; 16,20; Plin. HN 8,76; 11,255). The main source was Ctesias of Cnidus, who was the first to describe in detail a fabulous one-horned wild ass in his Ἰνδικά ( Indiká = FGr…

Chryseis

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσηίς; Chrysēís). Etymology ‘girl from  Chryse’ or ‘daughter of Chryses’. The daughter of the Apollo priest Chryses who was captured by  Achilles in Thebes and allotted to Agamemnon as a slave. When Chryses pleaded with Agamemnon to have C. returned, he was refused. On Chryses' prayer Apollo forced the return of C. by sending a plague. Agamemnon then demanded Achilles' captive  Briseis as a substitute and, thus, incurred his anger (Hom. Il. 1). According to schol. Il. 1,392 C. w…

Chrysippe

(23 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσίππη; Chrysíppē). Danaid who killed her spouse Chrysippus, son of Aegyptus (Apollod. 2,18; Hyg. Fab. 170). Bloch, René (Berne)

Deimos

(172 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δεῖμος; Deîmos). Personification of fear; usually associated with  Phobos. Together with  Eris the pair urge warriors into battle (Hom. Il. 4,440), and harness the horses to  Ares's chariot (Il. 15,119f.).  Antimachus [3] misinterpreted them as the horses of Ares, descended from Thyella (‘storm’) [1]; similarly, in Val. Fl. 3,89 Terror and Pavor are the horses of Mars. According to Hes. Theog. 934, D. and Phobos are the sons of Ares and Cythereia (Aphrodite). In Semus, FGrH 396 F …

Concordia

(391 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The personification and deification of harmony analogous to the Greek  Homonoia (Cic. Nat. D. 2,61; ThlL, Onom. 2, 555-558 s.v. C.). C. is attested on one of the pocula deorum ( Cucordia. pocolo) [1]. Worship of c. is attested in Rome from the 4th cent. BC. The decisive phases in her history are associated with the search for internal unity (cf. the concordia ordinum). A first temple was allegedly dedicated to her in the northwest corner of the Forum in 367 BC by  Camillus to celebrate the end of the ‘struggle of the orders’ (Plut. Camillus 4…

Candaules

(156 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Κανδαύλης; Kandaúlēs). According to Hdt. 1.7-12, the last ruler of the Heraclid dynasty in Lydian Sardis. The Greeks also called him Myrsilus after his father Myrsus. C. allowed his faithful retainer  Gyges [1] to see his wife naked so that he would be convinced of her beauty. He was then murdered by Gyges after C.'s wife confronted him with the choice of suicide as an alternative. A dramatic version of this material can be glimpsed from the remnants of the text (TrGF II Adespota …
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