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Hubert, Henri

(195 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe
[German Version] (Jun 23, 1872 – May 26, 1927, Paris). Hubert was a French historian and sociologist from the school of É. Durkheim. In the work L'Année sociologique, he and his friend and colleague M. Mauss addressed the topic of the sociology of religion. He taught “early European religions” at the Ecole pratique des hautes études and was deputy administrator of the Musée des Antiquités Nationales of Saint-Germain- en-Laye, where he first worked under the guidance of S. Reinach. He also taught national archaeology at th…


(13,083 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Marx, Alfred | Chaniotis, Angelos | Bremmer, Jan N. | Moscovitz, Leib | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The word sacrifice denotes both the living creature or offering sacrificed and the ritual action (e.g. destruction) through which that creature or object is dedicated to a supernatural being. If a distinction needs to be made, English and the Romance languages can use sacrifice (Eng. and Fr.; sacrificio Ital. and Span.) for the ritual action while using victim (Fr. victime, Span. víctima, Ital. vittima) for the creature sacrificed. Etymologically sacrifice suggests an action in which the sacrificed object is “made holy/sacred” (Lat. sacrum fac…

Dietary Laws

(4,404 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Christianity – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Indian Religions I. Religious Studies A human society's dietary laws and prohibitions give us an excellent insight into its symbolic and ritual practices. The choice of nourishment (preferences and prohibitions) is closely tied to the overall image that a culture develops of itself, with whic…

Feasts and Festivals

(7,156 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Otto, Eckart | Veltri, Giuseppe | Schramm, Tim | Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Early Christianity – V. Church History – VI. Liturgical and Practical Aspects I. Religious Studies The words “feast” and “festival” (cf. fête, festa, fiesta, Fest, etc.) derive from the Latin festus ( dies). They refer to the calendar and also evoke the notion of the divine: a feast day is a special day set aside and dedicated to a certain supernatural being. “Feast” or “festival” can therefore be understood as synonyms for religious celebrations. To speak,…

Eating and Drinking,

(553 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe
[German Version] in the comparative study of religion. Nourishment is both a symbol-laden reality and a biological necessity. Every human society chooses from among the available foods by making a traditional distinction between those that are fit for consumption and those that are not. Culinary habits and table manners have cultural implications that go far beyond anything that a purely …

Mother goddesses

(987 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe (Geneva)
[German version] Numerous deities were referred to as ‘Mother’. In Greece, the oldest is a Mycenaean ‘Divine Mother’ ( Matere teija, in the dative: PY fr. 1202); the most important are Demeter, Rhea and Gaia, as well as the Lycian Leto and, above all, that goddess who actually was called ‘Mother’ ( Mḗtēr) or ‘Mother of the Gods’ ( Mḗtēr theṓn) and was considered exotic and at the same time very ancient (Cybele). Also well-known are the Sicilian Mothers, who were interpreted as the nurses of Zeus (Diod. Sic. 4,79-80; 5,64-65). In Rome, the cult of the Mat…


(935 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe (Genf)
[English version] Zahlreiche Gottheiten wurden als “Mütter” bezeichnet. In Griechenland ist die älteste eine myk. “göttliche Mutter” ( Matere teija, im Dativ: PY fr. 1202); die bedeutendsten sind Demeter, Rhea sowie Gaia, dazu die lykische Leto und v.a. jene Göttin, welche eigentlich “Mutter” ( Mḗtēr) oder “Göttermutter” ( Mḗtēr theṓn) genannt wird, und die als exotisch und zugleich sehr alt gilt (Kybele). Bekannt sind auch die sizilischen Mütter, welche als Ammen des Zeus gedeutet werden (Diod. 4,79-80; 5,64-65). In Rom bestand der Kult der M…


(3,798 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichAnhand der Speisegebote (S.) und -verbote einer menschlichen Gemeinschaft läßt sich der Zusammenhang zw. symbolischen und rituellen Handlungen ablesen. Die Wahl der Nahrung (Vorlieben und Verbote) ist eng verbunden mit dem Gesamtbild, das eine Kultur von sich entwirft und mit dem sie anderen Kulturen gegenübertritt und das seinerseits ein spezifisches Verhältnis zur Natur und Transzendenz voraussetzt. Die S. haben somit identitätsstiftende Funktion; si…


(11,705 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Marx, Alfred | Chaniotis, Angelos | Bremmer, Jan N. | Moscovitz, Leib | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichDas Wort »O.« bez. im Deutschen sowohl das geopferte Lebewesen bzw. die Opfergabe als auch diejenige rituelle Handlung (z.B. Zerstörung), durch die das Lebewesen oder Objekt den übernatürlichen Wesen zugeeignet wird. Im Engl. sowie in den romanischen Sprachen werden diese beiden Phänomene dagegen begrifflich differenziert. Engl./franz. »sacrifice« (ital./span. sacrificio) bez. die rituelle Opferhandlung, während engl. »victim« (franz. victime, span. vi…