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Thraci, Thracia

(5,334 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Boroffka, Nikolaus | Z.H.A.
(Θρᾷκες/ Thrâikes, Θρῇκες/ Thrêikes; Θρᾴκη/ Thrâikē, Θρῄκη/ Thrêikē): the 'Thracians' and the country 'Thrace' settled by them; Lat. Thraci, Thracia. [German version] I. Name Thraci (Th.) is a Greek collective term, based on linguistic and cultural homogeneity, for the population of the northern Balkan Peninsula from the north coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea, also called the 'Thracian Sea': Str. 1,2,20) to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]; ancient authors often include the territory as far as the northern Carpathians), an…

Pontos Euxeinos

(3,083 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Boroffka, Nikolaus
[German version] I. Geography (Πόντος Εὔξεινος; Póntos Eúxeinos), modern Black Sea. The ancient description may trace back to the Iranians, who described the sea as achshaenas, 'dark'; transcription into Greek gives áxeinos 'inhospitable'(cf. Ov. Tr. 4,4,55), a description which was euphemistically reinterpreted by sailors as eúxeinos, 'hospitable'; the Greeks also knew the PE as the 'Black Sea' (Eur. Iph. T. 107: πόντος μέλας; póntos mélas). The PE, a subsidiary sea of the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum), extends, including Lake Maeotis, over an area of about 450,000 km2 (extent …