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S̲h̲īrwān

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲irwān or S̲h̲arwān , a region of eastern Caucasia, known by this name in both mediaeval Islamic and modern times. S̲h̲īrwān proper comprised the easternmost spurs of the Caucasus range and the lands which sloped down from these mountains to the banks of the Kur river [ q.v.]. But its rulers strove continuously to control also the western shores of the Caspian Sea from Ḳuba (the modern town of Kuba) in the district of Maskat (< *Maskut, Mas̲h̲kut, to be connected with the ancient Eurasian steppe people of the Massagetes) in the north, to Bākū [ q.v.] (modern Baku) in the south. To the …

Kābulistān

(112 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the upper basin of the Kābul River (see preceding article), vaguely defined in early Islamic times as the region between Bāmiyān in the west and Lamg̲h̲ān in the east. The geographer Muḳaddāsī (c. 375/985) includes within it all the country north of G̲h̲azna and Zābulistān, i.e., the Lōgar valley, cf. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 349; and it is only about this time that the term “Kābul” becomes specialised for the name of the town rather than being applied to the whole region of Kābulistān. In contemporary Afg̲h̲…

Sulaymān

(174 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a range of mountains running roughly south-north and to the west of the Indus river in modern Pākistān. The Sulaymān rise from the low tract of the Dērad̲j̲āt [ q.v.] which lie along the right bank of the Indus and run, in a series of long, sharp-backed ridges and jagged peaks, from the Bugt́ī and Marī districts of north-east Balūčistān in the south to the Gomal Pass [see gūmāl in Suppl.] and river in the north, thereafter continuing as the Wazīristān hills (i.e. they lie between latitudes 28° 50′ and 32° 20′ N.). It is at the northern end that the hig…

K̲h̲uttalān

(1,244 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, K̲h̲uttal , a region on the right bank of the upper Oxus river, in what is now Soviet Central Asia, lying between the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ river and the Pand̲j̲ river (sc. the head waters of the Oxus), called the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲āb and D̲j̲aryāb in mediaeval times. It was bounded on the west by the topographically similar regions of Čag̲h̲āniyan and Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ qq.v.], and was often administratively linked with Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ii, 402). K̲h̲uttal was a land of rich pastures in both the river valleys and on the upper slopes of the hills, where t…

Māzandarān

(7,117 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Vasmer, R.
, a province to the south of the Caspian Sea bounded on the west by Gīlān [ q. v.] and on the east by what was in Ḳad̲j̲ār times the province of Astarābād [ q.v., formerly Gurgān); Māzandarān and Gurgān now form the modern ustān or province of Māzandarān. 1. The name. If Gurgān to the Iranians was the "land of the wolves" ( vәhrkāna , the region to its west was peopled by "Māzaynian dēws" (Bartholomae, Altir . Wörterbuch , col. 1169, under māzainya daēva ). Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta , ii, 373, n. 32, thought that Māzandarān was a "comparative of direction" (* Mazana-tara ; c…

Sāwa

(1,839 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schaeder, H.H.
(older form Sāwad̲j̲, cf. the nisba Sāwad̲j̲ī, found at the side of Sāwī), a town of northern Persia some 125 km/80 miles to the southwest of Tehran (lat. 35° 00′ N., long. 50° 22′ E., altitude 960 m/3,149 feet). It was formerly on the Ḳazwīn-Ḳumm road used in mediaeval times but now replaced by the modern paved roads-system centred on Tehran, and on the main caravan and pilgrimage route from southwestern Persia a…

al-Walīd b. ʿUḳba

(216 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Abī Muʿayṭ , Companion of the Prophet and member of the Abū ʿAmr family of the Umayyad clan in Mecca, d. 61/680. His father ʿUḳba fell at Badr opposing Muḥammad, but al-Walīd became a Muslim at the conquest of Mecca in 8/630. He acted as collector of the ṣadaḳa [ q.v.] from the Banū Muṣṭaliḳ under the Prophet and that from the Christian Banū Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.] in al-D̲j̲azīra under ʿUmar. Through his mother, he was a half-brother of the ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, and when the latter became caliph he appointed al-Walīd governor of Kūfa after Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ (29/6…

ʿUrwa b. Masʿūd

(316 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Muʿattib al-T̲h̲aḳafī , Abū Yaʿfur, a leader of the Aḥlāf group in al-Ṭāʾif [ q.v.] at the time of the rise of Islam and considered technically as a Companion of the Prophet, d. 9/630. He was descended through his mother from ʿAbd S̲h̲ams of Ḳurays̲h̲ and married a daughter, Āmina or Maymūna, of the Meccan head of resistance against Muḥammad, Abū Sufyān [ q.v.]. ʿUrwa took part in the negotiations between the Prophet and the Meccans for the truce of al-Ḥudaybiya [ q.v.] in 6/628 as an ally of Ḳurays̲h̲. When the men of al-Ṭāʾif, from both the component groups of the Aḥlāf a…

Tekis̲h̲

(527 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Il Arslan , Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Tād̲j̲ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Dīn, one of the K̲h̲wārazm S̲h̲āhs of Anūs̲h̲tigin’s line, reigned 567-96/1172-1200. The name (thus vocalised in Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, tr. Atalay, i, 368) means something like “confronted, attacked, struck [in battle]”; see Hikmet Bayur, Harizmşah Alâüʾd-DînTekiş ” ʾ in adi hakkinda, in Belleten , xiv, no. 56 [1950], 589-95. ¶ Tekis̲h̲ had been governor of D̲j̲and [ q.v. in Suppl.] during his father’s lifetime, and only succeeded to the throne after a struggle with his younger brother Sulṭān S̲h̲āh, who…

Uways

(741 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of two rulers of the D̲j̲alāyirids [ q.v.], a dynasty of Mongol origin which succeeded to the heritage of the II K̲h̲ānids in ʿIrāḳ and Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. 1. S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Uways (I) b. Ḥasan-i Buzurg (r. 757-76/1356-74), was the son of the founder of the line and of the Čopanid princess Dil-S̲h̲ād K̲h̲ātūn bt. Dimas̲h̲ḳ K̲h̲wād̲j̲a b. Čopan. Succeeding to power on his father’s death, he probably also brought under his control the fiefs allotted to his brother Sulṭān Ḥusayn when the latter died in 760/1359. Uways made Bag̲h̲dād his capital, at …

Walwālīd̲j̲

(248 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Warwālīd̲j̲ , a town of mediaeval Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, mentioned in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 72, 109, as the ḳaṣaba or administrative centre of the ¶ province. It lay on the road from Balk̲h̲ and K̲h̲ulm [ q.vv.] to Ṭālaḳān and Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān [ q.vv.] between the confluence of the Dōs̲h̲ī (Surk̲h̲-āb) and Ṭālaḳān rivers, whose united stream then flowed into the Oxus. It seems to be the A-hua of Hiuen-tsang, attesting to its existence in pre-Islamic, Hephthalite times. E.G. Pulleyblank suggested that the element wal-/war-reflects the name of the Cent…

Sībī

(461 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(also spelt Sīwī in mediaeval Islamic sources, e.g. the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) a town and district of northeastern Balūčistān, lying on the plain below the entrance to the Bolān Pass and the route to Quetta [see kwat́t́a ], which is some 140 km/88 miles beyond Sībī town. The town is situated in lat. 29° 31′ N. and long. 67° 54′ E. Because of its strategic position between the mouths of the Bolān and Harnaī Passes, and on the way down to the Indus valley, it has always played a part in history. In early Islamic times, Sībī was one of the towns of the district of Bālis(h) or Wālis̲h̲ān, althou…

Raʿiyya

(3,019 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Faroqhi, Suraiya
(a.), pl. raʿāyā , literally “pasturing herd of cattle, sheep, etc.”, a term which in later Islam came to designate the mass of subjects, the taxpaying common people, as opposed to the ruling military and learned classes. 1. In the mediaeval Islamic world. Ḳurʾānic use of the verb raʿā and its derivatives ¶ covers the two semantic fields of “to pasture flocks” (e.g. XX, 56/54; XXVIII, 23) and “to tend, look after someone’s interests” (e.g. XXIII, 8; LVII, 27; LXX, 32). Since other Near Eastern religions and cultures have evolved the image of the …

Wahriz

(327 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, son of Kāmd̲j̲ār, a Persian general of K̲h̲usraw Anūs̲h̲arwān (A.D. 531-79 [see kisrā ]). The name would apparently stem from MP vēhrēz “having a good abundance”, see Nöldeke, Gesch . der Perser und Araber , 223 n. 2, and Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch , 340, but was in origin a title, since the Byzantine historian Procopius names the commander of the Sāsānid emperor Kawād’s expedition into Georgia and Lazica (early 5th century) as having the title Ouarizēs (< * wahriz ); see daylam, at Vol. II, 190a. In response to an appeal ca. 570, via the Lak̲h̲mids [ q.v.], from Sayf b. D̲h̲ī Yazan, the …

Warāmīn

(636 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town of northern Persia (lat. 35° 19’ N., long. 51° 40’ E.) lying in the fertile Warāmīn plain, which benefits from a good water supply from the D̲j̲ād̲j̲a Rūd and has been much frequented by Turkmen nomads up to modern times. 1. History. The mediaeval Islamic geographers place it at two stages from al-Rayy (al-Muḳaddasī, 401) or at 30 mīl s from it (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 370). Already in Būyid times it was a flourishing little town with a bazaar, but it developed especially after the Mongols sacked al-Rayy in 617/1220 an…

Ṣaff

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Shinar, P.
(a.), pl. ṣufūf , literally “rank, row or line, company of men standing in a rank, row or line” (Lane, 1693 col. 3), a term with various usages. 1. In religious practice. Here, ṣaff is used for the lines of worshippers assembled in the mosque or elsewhere for the prescribed worship; see on This, ṣalāt . 2. In military organisation. In the traditional formation of armies on the march or on the battlefield ( taʿbiya ), there was a classic five-fold division of a centre, its left and right wings, a vanguard and a ¶ rearguard (whence the term k̲h̲amīs for an army). In actual…

Mustak̲h̲rid̲j̲

(212 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the active participle of the verb istak̲h̲rad̲j̲a in the sense of “to extract”, used in the mediaeval Islamic terminology for the person responsible for collecting money, such as that of the ṣadaḳa or poor-tax (al-Ṭabarī, i, 2746) or of the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ or land-tax; thus in ʿAbbāsid times he was an offical of the Dīwan al-K̲h̲arād̲j̲ charged with the latter task ( ibid., hi, 1856, year 257/871, caliphate of al-Muʿtamid). In Muslim Spain, it seems to have been the original of the Latin term exceptor , the official who collected on behalf of the Muslim s…

Fasāʾī

(459 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Ḥasan , Persian scholar of the 19th century and author of a historicalgeographical work on his native province of Fārs, the Fārsnāma-yi Nāṣirī (the latter part of the book’s title being a reference to the Ḳād̲j̲ār sultan Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, in whose reign Ḥasan Fasāʾī wrote). He was born, according to the autobiography inserted into his book, in 1237/1821-2 in the small town of Fasā [ q.v.] in Fārs, of a family which had been prominent in the intellectual and religious life of S̲h̲īrāz for at least four centuries; various members of it had be…

al-Rass

(376 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name in Arabic geographical writing for the Araxes River (Perso-Turkish form Aras, Armenian Eraskʿ, Georgian Rak̲h̲s̲h̲ī, modern Aras). It rises in what is now eastern Turkey near Erzurum and flows generally in an eastwards direction for 1,072 km/670 miles into the Caspian Sea. Its middle reaches, from a point near Mount Ararat, today form the boundary between the former Azerbaijan SSR and Persia, with the lower stretch receiving the Kur River and flowing through the Mūḳān [ q.v.] steppes and what is now wholly Azerbaijani territory. The early Arabic name al-Rass led the Musl…

Payās

(333 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Ottoman Turkish form of modern Turkish Payas, a small town at the head of the Gulf of Alexandretta 18 km/12 miles north of Iskandarūn [ q.v.] (lat. 36° 46′ N., long. 36° 10′ E.). Lying as it ¶ does in the very narrow coastal corridor between the sea and the Amanus Mts. or D̲j̲abal al-Lukkām [ q.v.], the modern Turkish Gavur Dağlari, Payās has always been a strategically important point on the route from Cilicia to Antioch; the name itself goes back to that of the classical Greek town of Baiae (see PW, ii/2, col. 2775 (Ruge)). In the early Islamic period, Payās was on the road connecting…
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