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Ḳarluḳ

(1,159 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, early Arabic form K̲h̲arluk̲h̲, Persian K̲h̲alluk̲h̲ (whence frequent confusion in the sources with the K̲h̲alad̲j̲ [ q.v.], Chinese Ko-lo-lu (northwestern Middle Chinese *Kâr-lâ-luk), a Turkish tribal group in Central Asia. They were originally a small federation of three tribes (whence the name given to them in the Uyg̲h̲ur Shine-usu inscription ca. 760 of Uč Ḳarli̊ḳ; the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , 98, on the other hand, mentions seven tribes of the Ḳarluḳ), and comparatively unimportant. Their paramount chief never bore the title of k̲h̲ag̲h̲an or k̲h̲an , but i…

S̲h̲ūrā

(2,676 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Marín, Manuela | Ayalon, A.
(a.), together with mas̲h̲wara , mas̲h̲ūra , a nominal form connected with the form IV verb as̲h̲āra “to point out, indicate; advise, counsel” (see Lane, s.v.), with the meaning “consultation”. 1. In early Islamic history. Here, s̲h̲ūrā is especially used of the small consultative and advisory body of prominent Ḳuras̲h̲īs which eventually chose ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān as the third caliph over the Muslim community after the assassination of ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb [ q.v.] in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 23/November 644. The practice of consultation by the sayyid or s̲h̲ayk̲h̲

Mahisur, Maysūr

(3,067 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Andrews, P.A.
, conventional spelling Mysore , a former princely state of British India, now the core of a component state of the Indian Union called Karnataka, with its capital at Bangalore, and also the name of the town which was the dynastic capital of the state. The native state was a landlocked one of South India, lying between lats. 11° 36′ and 15° 2′ N. and longs. 74° 38′ and 78° 36′ E. and with an area of 29,433 sq. miles. Its population in 1941 was 7,329,140…

Zirih

(552 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Zarah , an inland lake in Sīstān [ q.v.], now straddling the borders of Persia and Afg̲h̲ānistān and the largest stretch of inland fresh water on the Iranian plateau. The name comes from Avestan zrayah-, O Pers. drayah- “sea, lake”. The lake played a role in ancient Iranian legend about a Saos̲h̲yant or Redeemer, a son of Zoroaster, who would arise ¶ from it; Islamised versions of such legends describe King Solomon as commanding his army of jinn to lower the surface of the lake so that the land masses thereby appearing could be used for agriculture (see Bosworth, The Saffarids of Sistan , 36). The…

Ḳurḥ

(703 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, al-Ḳurḥ , a town and district of mediaeval Islamic times in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz, mentioned in early Islamic sources as of prime importance, but not now known under this name. It seems very likely that the place had a role in the pre-Islamic history of the Wādī ’l-Ḳurā [ q.v.], where the settlement of later Ḳurḥ was situated, although the principal towns then were Dēdān (modern al-K̲h̲urayba) and al-Ḥid̲j̲r [ q.v.] or Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ (modern al-ʿUlā). According to Yāḳūt, Buldān , Beirut 1374-6/1955-7, iv, 320-1, and al-Samhūdī, Wafāʾ al-wafaʾ , ed. M. M. ʿAbd a…

Fak̲h̲r-i Mudabbir

(637 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the s̲h̲uhra of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Manṣūr Mubārak S̲h̲āh al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī , Persian author in India during the time of the last G̲h̲aznawids, the G̲h̲ūrids and the first Slave Kings of Dihlī (later 6th/12th century-early 7th/13th century). His birth date and place are both unknown, but he was a descendant, so he says, on his father’s side from the caliph Abū Bakr and on his mother’s from the Turkish amīr Bilgetigin, the immediate predecessor in G̲h̲azna of Sebüktigin and father-in-law of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna; he may …

Muʾayyid al-Dawla

(224 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Manṣūr Būya b. Rukn al-Dawla Ḥasan , Būyid ruler in Iṣfahān, Rayy and most of D̲j̲ibāl 366-73/976-84. His father Rukn al-Dawla had before his death partitioned his lands between Muʾayyid al-Dawla (in Iṣfahān, Rayy and their dependencies) and another son Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla ʿAlī [ q.v.] (in Hamadān and Kurdish D̲j̲ibāl). In the event, Muʾayyid al-Dawla acknowledged the overlordship of their other brother, ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.] of Fārs, and with the latter’s support prevented Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla from assuming control in the greater part of his allotted territori…

Rād̲j̲mahāl

(242 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a former city of Muslim Bengal during Mug̲h̲al times, now a small town 6 km/4 miles to the east of the ruinous Mug̲h̲al site, in the Santāl Parganas District of Bihar Province in the Indian ¶ Union (lat. 25° 3ʹ N, long. 87° 50′ E.). To its west run the basaltic Rād̲j̲mahāl Hills of central Bihār. Rād̲j̲mahāl city grew up in the strategically important gap between the Hills and the right bank of the Ganges, a corridor defended in Mug̲h̲al times by the fortress of Teliāgarhi. When the Rād̲j̲put governor of the Mug̲h̲als, Mān Singh [ q.v.], had in 1000/1592 conquered Orissa [see úrisā …

D̲h̲ikrīs

(508 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Zikrīs , a Muslim sect of southern Balūčistān, especially strong amongst the Balūč of Makrān [ q.v.], but also with some representation amongst the Brahūīs of further north. The sect’s name derives from the fact that its adherents exalted the liturgical recitations of formulae including the name and titles of God, sc. d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], above the formal Muslim worship, the ṣalāt or namāz . The D̲h̲ikrīs were believed by Hughes-Buller to stem from the North Indian heterodox movement of the Mahdawiyya, the followers of Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī of D̲j̲awnpūr (847-91…

Mog̲h̲ols

(363 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an ethnie and, until recently, a linguistic group originally concentrated in westcentral Afg̲h̲ānistān, in the modern province of G̲h̲ōrāt, and carrying on there a semi-pastoral and semi-agricultural way of life; now however groups of them have become dispersed throughout northern and central Afg̲h̲ānistān. They number at most 10,000 souls. For other communities in Afg̲h̲ānistān of mixed Turkish-Mongol origin, see hazāras in Suppl. Unlike the S̲h̲īʿī Hazāras, the Mog̲h̲ols are Sunnī. The origins of these Mog̲h̲ols probably lie in the appearance in Afg̲h̲ānistān o…

Milla

(429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), religion, sect. Although the Arab philologists claim this term as a native Arabic word (cf. Nöldeke, in ZDMG, lvii ‘903], 413), their explanations are so farfetched as to render it almost certain that the term stems from Hebrew and Jewish and Christian Aramaic milla , Syriac melltā “utterance, word”, translating the Greek logos . It does not seem to have any pre-Islamic attestations, hence may have been a borrowing by Muḥammad himself. In the Ḳurʾān, it always means “religion”. It occurs fifteen times, including three ti…

Sūmanāt

(367 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the spelling in the Indo-Muslim sources for the ancient Indian town of Somnāth , properly Somanātha “lord of soma” (the hallucinogenic drink of the early Indo-Iranians), referring to Siva (S̲h̲iva), and, by extension, “lord of the moon”. It is now an ancient ruined town on the southwestern coast of the Kāt́hīāwāŕ peninsula of western India, in what was the older Indo-Muslim sultanate of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.]. Recent excavations have revealed settlement there dating back to 1500 B.C., and Somnāth plays a part ¶ in the story of the death of Kṛṣna (Kris̲h̲na) in the Mahābhārata

D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām

(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an Arab tribe which in Umayyad times claimed descent from Kahlān b. Sabaʾ of Yemen and relationship with Lak̲h̲m and ʿĀmila; this certainly corresponded with the prevailing political alliances. However, the North Arab tribes claimed that D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām, Ḳuḍāʿa and Lak̲h̲m were originally of Nizār but had later assumed Yemenī descent. D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām were among the nomads who had settled in pre-Islamic times on the borders of Byzantine Syria and Palestine; they held places like Madyan, ʿAmmān, Maʿān a…

Murg̲h̲āb

(303 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a river of Inner Asia, and like many rivers in that region, one without outlet to the sea or to any more extensive river system. It rises in the Kūh-i Ḥiṣār mountains in north-central Afg̲h̲ānistān, flows westwards and receives tributaries from the Band-i Turkistān and Paropamisus mountains in north-western Afg̲h̲ānistān. Some 250 miles from its source, it reaches the town of Bālā-Murg̲h̲āb in the modern Bādg̲h̲īs province of Afg̲h̲ānistan, and then enters the Turkmen SSR and flows for another 250 miles northwards towards the Ḳara Ḳum desert [ q.v.] to New Marw (Russ. Mary), and t…

Mutaṭawwiʿa

(956 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Muṭṭawwiʿa (a.), lit. “those who perform supererogatory deeds of piety, those over and above the duties laid upon them by the S̲h̲arīʿa ” echoing the use of the verb taṭawwaʿa in Ḳurʾān, II, 153/158, 180/184, IX, 80/79, the term used in military contexts for volunteer fighters. Al-Samʿānī defines them ( Ansāb , ed. Haydarābād, xii, 317) as “a group who devote themselves to g̲h̲azw and d̲j̲ihād , station themselves in ribāṭs along the frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr) and who go beyond the call of duty ¶ ( taṭawwaʿū ) in g̲h̲azw and undertake this last in the lands of u…

Yazīd b. Abī Sufyān

(295 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya, Arab commander of the conquests period, son of the Meccan leader Abū Sufyān [ q.v.] by his wife Zaynab bt. Nawfal and half-brother of the subsequent caliph Muʿāwiya I [ q.v.], d. 18/639 without progeny (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif ed. ʿUkās̲h̲a, 344-5). With his father and brother, he became a Muslim at the conquest of Mecca in 8/630, took part in the ensuing battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] and was one of “those whose hearts are won over”, receiving from the Prophet a gift of 100 camels and 40 ounces of silver (Ibn Saʿd, ii/1, 110, vii/2, 127; al-Wāḳidī, iii, 944-5; and see al-muʾallafa ḳulūbuh…

K̲h̲āṣṣ Oda

(319 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the “Privy Chamber” of the Ottoman palace organisation and the most important of the four departments comprising the Enderūn or Inside Service (the others being, in decreasing order of importance, the Treasury or K̲h̲azīne [ q.v.] the Privy Larder or Kilār-i̊ K̲h̲āṣṣ and the Great and Little Chambers or Büyük ve Küčük Odalar . The K̲h̲āṣṣ Oda as we know it was created by Meḥemmed the Conqueror, who in his Ḳānūn-nāme mentions by title its four chief officers and its staff of 32 pages or Ič Og̲h̲lam [ q.v.], who became known as the K̲h̲āṣṣ Oda g̲h̲ilmāni̊ or K̲h̲āṣṣ Odali̊lar

al-Sallāmī

(277 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad al-Bayhaḳī, historian of the Sāmānid period, who flourished in the middle decades of the 4th/10th century but whose exact dates of birth and death are unknown. According to the local historian of Bayhaḳ, Ibn Funduḳ [see al-bayhaḳī , ẓahīr al-dīn ... b. funduḳ ], he was a pupil of the rather shadowy nadīm and adīb Ibrahīm b. Muḥammad al-Bayhaḳī [ q.v.], author of the K. al-Maḥāsin wa ’l-masāwī , and according to al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, he was in the service of the Muḥtād̲j̲id amīr s of Čag̲h̲āniyān [see muḥtād̲j̲ids ], Abū Bakr Muḥammad and Abū…

Sud̲j̲ān Rāy Bhandārī

(429 words)

Author(s): Shafi, Mohammed | Bosworth, C.E.
, or Sud̲j̲ān Singh D̲h̲īr, Muns̲h̲ī ( flor . in the second half of the 11th/17th century and the early part of the 12th/18th century ¶ under the Mug̲h̲al emperor Awrangzīb [ q.v.]), Hindu chronicler of Muslim India and compiler of collections of ins̲h̲āʾ [ q.v.] literature. The name Sud̲j̲ān (probably not to be taken as Sand̲j̲ān, as in the EI 1 article) comes from a Hindi word meaning “well informed, wise, intelligent”, according to Storey. Very little is known of his life and career, apart from what he tells us in his books or what has been added to the manuscripts o…

Yas̲h̲m

(2,104 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Sheila S. Blair and J.M. Bloom
(p.), the Persian term for the mineral generally termed jade. This is made up of one or the other hard, fine-grained translucent stones jadeite or nephrite, the first a silicate of sodium and aluminum and the second a silicate of calcium and magnesium. Both may be white or colourless, but are often found in a variety of other colours, such as green, brown, yellow, etc., because of the presence of traces of other elements such as iron, chromium and manganese. 1. In Islamic history. Nephrite was known to Eastern Turkic peoples as ¶ kas̲h̲ (see Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirt…
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