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Clonas

(84 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλονᾶς; Klonâs). Poet and musician who is claimed to be from both Tegea and Thebes; possibly early 7th cent. BC, as he is classified between  Terpander and  Archilochus (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1133a). Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli = Ps.-Plut. ibid. 1131f-1132c, cf. Poll. 4,79) credits him with elegiac poems and hexameters as well as with having introduced nómoi for vocal music (αὐλῴδια/ aulṓidia) accompanied on the aulós, and processional songs (προσόδια/ prosódia). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 333-334.

Mimnermus

(760 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μίμνερμος; Mímnermos) of Colophon or Smyrna, 2nd half of the 7th century BC. One of the earliest writers of Greek elegy. In antiquity, he was viewed, along with Callinus [1] and Archilochus as its possible ‘inventor’. The Suda dates M. to the 37th Olympiad (632-629 BC), but the opinion of scholars is divided: that M. was still living around 600 cannot be proved by citing Solon (20 W., purporting to be a reply to M.) ( contra [7]); praise of a victor from an earlier generation over the Lydians (14 W.), as well as a poem about a battle against Gyges [1] (P…

Panarces

(79 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πανάρκης; Panárkēs). Date and origin uncertain; Ath. 452c, adducing Clearchus' [6] On Riddles (Περὶ γρίφων, Perì gríphōn), attributes riddles to him but cites only one, known also from Pl. Resp. 479b, where the scholiast quotes two versions, each in four iambic trimeters, and attributes them to Clearchus = fr. 95 Wehrli. It is uncertain whether P. lived as early as that, or whether the riddle was attributed to him, in Plato's time. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Polymnestus

(178 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πολύμνηστος/ Polýmnēstos), son of Meles. Epic and elegiac poet of the 7th cent. BC from Colophon. Ps.-Plut. De musica 1132c-d reports that according to Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli), P. lived after Clonas and Terpander, and composed aulodic nomoi (αὐλῳδικοὶ νόμοι/ aulōidikoì nómoi; Nomos [3]), the so-called Polymnḗsteia (Πολυμνήστεια) (1132d). In connection with the establishment (κατάστασις/ katástasis) of the 'Second School' of Greek music on the Peloponnese, Ps.-Plutarch links him with, among others, Thale(ta)s of Gortyn and…

Pigres

(93 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πίγρης; Pígrēs). Poet from Halicarnassus, son (Plut. Mor. 873f) or brother (Suda π 1551) of Artemisia [1], c. 480 BC (provided the person was not invented; on the Carian name cf. Hdt. 7,98; Syll.3 46,28). Plutarch (if this is not an interpolation [1]) ascribes the Batrachomyomachía to P.; the Suda adds the Margítes and an Iliás, in which P. follows each hexameter in Homer with a pentameter. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 R. Peppmüller, Review of A. Ludwich, Der Karer P. und sein Tierepos Batrachomachia, 1896, in: PhW 21, 1901, 673-679.

Apsines

(151 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀψίνης; Apsínēs) Valerius [1] A., sophist from Gadara, pupil of the sophist Heracleides and of Basilicus, a teacher of Gaianus, rival of Fronto of Emesa in Athens during the reign of Maximinus, where he was granted the ornamenta consularia (Suda α 4735 Adler). Father of the sophist Onasimus (Suda α 4734, 4736), friend of Philostratus (Philostr. VS 2,33). The works ζητήματα and a Demosthenes commentary (Maximus Planudes 5,517 Walz) have been lost; a corrupt work περὶ τῶν ἐσχηματισμένων προβλημάτων follows a revision o…

Asopodorus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Writer of iambics, from Phleius, 4th or 3rd cent. BC. Athenaeus is familiar with οἱ καταλογάδην ἴαμβοι (prose mixed with verse?), that are characterized by compound nouns (445b), and a work about Eros (639a), from which he however transmits no fragment, but just an anecdote (631f.). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Moeragenes

(135 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μοιραγένης; Moiragénēs). Author of ‘Memories of the Magus and Philosopher Apollonius of Tyana (Τὰ Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ Τυανέως μάγου καὶ φιλοσόφου ἀπομνημονεύματα: Orig. contra Celsum 6,41). The title and size (4 volumes according to Philostr. Ap. 1,3, who bluntly dismisses M. as ignorant regarding Apollonius [14]) suggest that M. (cf. Apollonius of Tyana, epist. 16,17) was not presenting Apollonius in an unfavourable light as a ‘charlatan’ ( góēs), but favourably as a ‘magus’ ( mágos). He is  possibly the M. mentioned in Plut. Symp. 671c and/or the M. of IG 22 6495, a con…

Hippodromos

(465 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
In Greek architecture hippodromos (ἱππόδρομος; hippódromos) denotes the racetrack for horses, which was a customary facility in the polis and the sanctuaries from the early 7th cent. (introduction of chariot races in Olympia in 680 BC). In archaic times the hippodromos was a first-rate place of aristocratic representation, where wealth could be demonstrated visibly before the public through the ownership and regular use of pure-bred race horses. The u-shaped facilities were surrounded by ranks for spectators and furnished with a star…

Hedyla

(107 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἡδύλη; Hēdýlē). According to Ath. 297a, the daughter of the Attic female iambic Moschine and the mother of  Hedylus. This means that she wrote in the early 3rd cent. BC [1]. Athenaeus allocates to H. five elegiac verses (and one word of a sixth) that stem from a poem with the title Skýlla. In it  Glaucus [2] brings his beloved  Scylla maritime presents, presumably before her monstrous metamorphosis, in Sicily or southern Italy (cf. Ov. Met. 13, 904ff.; Hyg. Fab. 199). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 GA I,2, 289. SH 456 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Lesefrüchte, in:…

Damianus

(139 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμιανός; Damianós). [German version] T. Flavius Damianus. Sophist from Ephesus Sophist from Ephesus, where he financed public and private buildings, among them a dining-hall and stoaí the length of one stadion (Philostr. VS 2,23). In three discussions before his death at the age of 70 ( c. AD 210?) he gave his student Philostratus the material for the biography of his teachers Aelius Aristides and Hadrianus of Tyre. As γραμματεύς ( grammateús) he housed Roman troops returning from the Parthian Wars in 166/7 (IK 17.1,3080) and in 170/1 honoured the proconsul Asiae Nonius Macrinus wit…

Semonides of Amorgos

(576 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σημωνίδης/ Sēmōnídēs: Choiroboskos in Etym. M. 713,17; most citations spell Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). One of the earliest known composers of iambic poetry (Iambographers) of the 7th cent. The dating of Cyrillus (Contra Iulianum 1,14) to 664-611 BC is to be preferred (cf. Archilochus) to that of the Suda σ 446 to 490 years after the Trojan War, i.e. 693 BC (cf. the information wrongly transmitted under Simmias σ 431). According to the Suda σ 431 he led colonists from Samos to found Minoa, Aigialos and Arkesine in Amorgos. S. wrote Íamboi and an 'Early History' (Ἀρχαιολογία/ Ar…

Hipponax

(888 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἱππῶναξ; Hippônax). [German version] A. Person H. was a poet of iambs (ἰαμβοποιός; iambopoiós) from Ephesus (cf. Callim. fr. 203,13). Based on the Marmor Parium 42, his life can be dated from c. 541/0 BC, Pliny (HN 36,11) mentions Ol. 60 = 540-537 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Metrics As opposed to  Archilochus and  Semonides, H. is not attributed with elegiac verses. In his Íamboi, he primarily (1-114a, 155-155b West) used choliambic trimeters (x -  - x -  - x - x) interspersed with occasional pure trimeters (e.g. 36,4; 42,4; 118a W.). Also …

Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His pupils included Phoenix (ibid.). Artem. 4,1 (p. 242,11-13 Pack…

Second Sophistic

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] I. Concept A term often used by modern scholarship, particularly for the Greek culture (esp. literary culture) during the Roman Empire between AD 60 and AD 230 when 'Sophistic declamation' (μελέτη/melétē) became one of the most prestigious cultural activities in the Greek world. Philostratus (Philostr.VS 1 praefatio 481, cf. 1,18,507) first uses (and, it seems, coined) the term 'Second Sophistic' to distinguish the declamatory conventions that he claims were introduced by Aeschines ( i.e., for example, the adoption of 'personae' of oligarchs, tyrants o…

Cleobuline

(49 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλεοβουλίνη). (Probably fictive) daughter of  Cleobulus [1] of Lindus, to whom riddles in an elegiac distichon (Fr. 1-2 West) or a single hexameter (Fr. 3 W.) have been attributed since the late 5th cent. BC (Dissoi logoi 3,10 = Fr. 2 W.). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Chrestus

(81 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Χρηστός; Chrēstós) from Byzantium. Sophist; pupil and emulator of  Herodes Atticus; taught in Athens. He had 100 pupils, among them many of significance; an alcoholic; he declined the attempt of the Athenians shortly after 180 to appoint him as successor to Hadrianus as professor of rhetoric in Athens. He died at c. 50 years of age (Philostr. VS 2,11). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography I. Avotins, The Holders of the Chairs of Rhetoric at Athens, in: HSPh 79, 1975, 320-1.

Ananius

(83 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Ionian iambographer (?  c. 6th cent. BC). Athenaeus quotes four choliambic fragments: three in trimeters and one in nine tetrameters (9W, the longest), on the most appropriate foods for the respective season. Athenaeus ascribes 2W either to A. or Hipponax; Stobaeus ascribes 3W to Hipponax, and the scholiast of Arist. Ran. 659 ff. that ascribes to A. which Dionysus ascribes to Hipponax, in which there is an underlying confusion in ascribing it to about 406/5 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2,34-36.

Iambographers

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] A. Archaic and Classical Poets Among archaic Greek poets,  Archilochus,  Semonides and  Hipponax were regarded as the earliest authors of iambics ( íamboi), followed by  Ananius and, later in the 5th century BC,  Hermippus [1]. The term iambopoioí is found not before the Byzantine lexica. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Term and metrics ί̓αμβος ( íambos) seems, although its earliest use (Archil. 215 W) is not decisive, initially to identify a type of poem defined by content (cf. Pl. Leg. 935e) rather than by metre (cf. Hdt. 1…
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