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Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His pupils included Phoenix (ibid.). Artem. 4,1 (p. 242,11-13 Pack…

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Iambographers

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] A. Archaic and Classical Poets Among archaic Greek poets,  Archilochus,  Semonides and  Hipponax were regarded as the earliest authors of iambics ( íamboi), followed by  Ananius and, later in the 5th century BC,  Hermippus [1]. The term iambopoioí is found not before the Byzantine lexica. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Term and metrics ί̓αμβος ( íambos) seems, although its earliest use (Archil. 215 W) is not decisive, initially to identify a type of poem defined by content (cf. Pl. Leg. 935e) rather than by metre (cf. Hdt. 1…

Tyrtaeus

(621 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Τυρταῖος; Tyrtaîos). Spartan elegist and aulete, c. 640 BC (Suda s.v. Τυρταῖος, 1205; cf. T.' dating of Theopompus [1] to two generations before his own day, 5 W). The (probably Hellenistic) edition of his poems in 5 vols. (Suda loc.cit.) contains (1) martial exhortatory elegies, (2) the Eunomía and (3) war songs. (1) The battle exhortations (ὑποθῆκαι/ hypothêkai, Suda loc.cit.) urged the Spartans (always in the pl.) to courageous action against the enemy (Messenians: 23 W; Arcadians and Argives: 23a W). Honour in victory or death wa…

Echembrotus

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Eχέμβροτος; Echémbrotos) Arcadian aulode and elegist. Paus. 10,7,5-6 reports about his victory in the aulode competition during the newly arranged Pythian Games in 586 BC and quotes his verse(?) epigram on a tripod in Thebes dedicated to Hercules. His description as a singer of μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους is the earliest record of the term élegoi. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2, 62 M. L. West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, 1974.

Apsines

(151 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀψίνης; Apsínēs) Valerius [1] A., sophist from Gadara, pupil of the sophist Heracleides and of Basilicus, a teacher of Gaianus, rival of Fronto of Emesa in Athens during the reign of Maximinus, where he was granted the ornamenta consularia (Suda α 4735 Adler). Father of the sophist Onasimus (Suda α 4734, 4736), friend of Philostratus (Philostr. VS 2,33). The works ζητήματα and a Demosthenes commentary (Maximus Planudes 5,517 Walz) have been lost; a corrupt work περὶ τῶν ἐσχηματισμένων προβλημάτων follows a revision o…

Asopodorus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Writer of iambics, from Phleius, 4th or 3rd cent. BC. Athenaeus is familiar with οἱ καταλογάδην ἴαμβοι (prose mixed with verse?), that are characterized by compound nouns (445b), and a work about Eros (639a), from which he however transmits no fragment, but just an anecdote (631f.). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Moeragenes

(135 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μοιραγένης; Moiragénēs). Author of ‘Memories of the Magus and Philosopher Apollonius of Tyana (Τὰ Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ Τυανέως μάγου καὶ φιλοσόφου ἀπομνημονεύματα: Orig. contra Celsum 6,41). The title and size (4 volumes according to Philostr. Ap. 1,3, who bluntly dismisses M. as ignorant regarding Apollonius [14]) suggest that M. (cf. Apollonius of Tyana, epist. 16,17) was not presenting Apollonius in an unfavourable light as a ‘charlatan’ ( góēs), but favourably as a ‘magus’ ( mágos). He is  possibly the M. mentioned in Plut. Symp. 671c and/or the M. of IG 22 6495, a con…

Hippodromos

(465 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
In Greek architecture hippodromos (ἱππόδρομος; hippódromos) denotes the racetrack for horses, which was a customary facility in the polis and the sanctuaries from the early 7th cent. (introduction of chariot races in Olympia in 680 BC). In archaic times the hippodromos was a first-rate place of aristocratic representation, where wealth could be demonstrated visibly before the public through the ownership and regular use of pure-bred race horses. The u-shaped facilities were surrounded by ranks for spectators and furnished with a star…

Hedyla

(107 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἡδύλη; Hēdýlē). According to Ath. 297a, the daughter of the Attic female iambic Moschine and the mother of  Hedylus. This means that she wrote in the early 3rd cent. BC [1]. Athenaeus allocates to H. five elegiac verses (and one word of a sixth) that stem from a poem with the title Skýlla. In it  Glaucus [2] brings his beloved  Scylla maritime presents, presumably before her monstrous metamorphosis, in Sicily or southern Italy (cf. Ov. Met. 13, 904ff.; Hyg. Fab. 199). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 GA I,2, 289. SH 456 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Lesefrüchte, in:…

Damianus

(139 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμιανός; Damianós). [German version] T. Flavius Damianus. Sophist from Ephesus Sophist from Ephesus, where he financed public and private buildings, among them a dining-hall and stoaí the length of one stadion (Philostr. VS 2,23). In three discussions before his death at the age of 70 ( c. AD 210?) he gave his student Philostratus the material for the biography of his teachers Aelius Aristides and Hadrianus of Tyre. As γραμματεύς ( grammateús) he housed Roman troops returning from the Parthian Wars in 166/7 (IK 17.1,3080) and in 170/1 honoured the proconsul Asiae Nonius Macrinus wit…

Archilochus

(1,656 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀρχίλοχος; Archílochos) From Paros and Thasos, one of the earliest known poets of elegiac, iambic and epodic poetry. [German version] A. Life and Poetry A., son of Telesicles, who guided a Parian colony in 675 BC to Thasos [1], wrote poetry ca. 670-640 [2; 3], cf. the mention of Gyges (died c. 652) as exemplum in 19W (= IEG) and the misfortune of the city of Magnesia in 20W (probably its destruction by Treres, cf. Callinus 5W in Strabon, 14,1,40). The eclipse of the sun in 122W possibly may been have that of 6th April 648. Elegies: amongst the sparse remnants, two poems give comfort on t…

Scopelianus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκοπελιανός; Skopelianós). Sophist from Clazomenae, active c. 80-115 AD. According to Philostr. VS 1,21,514, our only source, S. was taught by Nicetes [2], presumably in Smyrna where S. too taught (his pupils included Polemon) and declaimed. Renowned especially for subjects drawn from the Persian Wars, S. had a vigorous style (apparent also in his epic Γιγαντία ( Gigantía), criticised as 'dithyrambic'. Like his ancestors he was high priest of the province of Asia (ἀρχιερεύς/ archiereús). Often an envoy to emperors, c. 92 AD he successfully opposed Domitian's…

Scythinus

(124 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκυθῖνος; Skythînos). iambic poet from Teos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τέως), perhaps 5th or 4th century B.C. S. composed a poem expounding Heraclitus' [1] philosophy (cited in Diog. Laert. 9,16 = fr. 46 Wehrli), perhaps entitled On Nature (περὶ φύσεως), as in the lemma of Stob. 1,8,43 citing fr. 2 W. on 'time', either in prose or in corrupted trochaic tetrameters [1], the metre of S.' two lines about Apollo's lyre cited Plut. de Pyth. or. 16,402a. Ath. 11,461e cites an account of Herakles' conquests from an apparently prose ‘ historía’ (FGrH 13 F 1). Iambographers  Bowie, Ewen (O…

Zenothemis

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ζηνόθεμις; Zēnóthemis). Elegiac poet, probably from the late 4th or early 3rd cent. BC. The only surviving fragment is an elegiac distichon from a Periplous which names the Issedones and the Arismaspi as neighbours (SH 855, quoted by Tzetz. Chil. 7,765f.). This poem is probably also the source of references to Hyperboreans (ibid. 7, 642-671 = SH 856), Amazones in Ethiopia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,963-965c = SH 857), and fish in a Paeonic lake that are fed alive to cattle (Ael. NA 17,30…

Semonides of Amorgos

(576 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σημωνίδης/ Sēmōnídēs: Choiroboskos in Etym. M. 713,17; most citations spell Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). One of the earliest known composers of iambic poetry (Iambographers) of the 7th cent. The dating of Cyrillus (Contra Iulianum 1,14) to 664-611 BC is to be preferred (cf. Archilochus) to that of the Suda σ 446 to 490 years after the Trojan War, i.e. 693 BC (cf. the information wrongly transmitted under Simmias σ 431). According to the Suda σ 431 he led colonists from Samos to found Minoa, Aigialos and Arkesine in Amorgos. S. wrote Íamboi and an 'Early History' (Ἀρχαιολογία/ Ar…

Hipponax

(888 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἱππῶναξ; Hippônax). [German version] A. Person H. was a poet of iambs (ἰαμβοποιός; iambopoiós) from Ephesus (cf. Callim. fr. 203,13). Based on the Marmor Parium 42, his life can be dated from c. 541/0 BC, Pliny (HN 36,11) mentions Ol. 60 = 540-537 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Metrics As opposed to  Archilochus and  Semonides, H. is not attributed with elegiac verses. In his Íamboi, he primarily (1-114a, 155-155b West) used choliambic trimeters (x -  - x -  - x - x) interspersed with occasional pure trimeters (e.g. 36,4; 42,4; 118a W.). Also …

Polymnestos

(180 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[English version] (Πολύμνηστος), Sohn des Meles. Epischer und elegischer Dichter des 7. Jh. v. Chr. aus Kolophon. Ps.-Plut. de musica 1132c-d referiert, daß P. laut Herakleides Pontikos (fr. 157 Wehrli) nach Klonas und Terpandros lebte und aulodische Nomoi (αὐλῳδικοὶ νόμοι, aulōidikoí nómoi; nómos [3]), die sog. Polymnḗsteia (Πολυμνήστεια) komponierte (1132d). Ps.-Plutarchos bringt ihn - im Zusammenhang mit der Etablierung (κατάστασις) der “zweiten Schule” der griech. Musik auf der Peloponnes - u. a. mit Thale(ta)s von Gortyn und mit Sakad…

Panarkes

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[English version] (Πανάρκης). Datier. und Herkunft unsicher; Athen. 452c (der Klearchos' [6] ‘Über Rätsel/Περὶ γρίφων heranzieht) schreibt ihm Rätsel zu, zitiert aber nur eines, welches auch aus Plat. rep. 479b bekannt ist (dort zitiert der Scholiast zwei Versionen von jeweils vier iambischen Trimetern und weist sie Klearchos zu = fr. 95 Wehrli). Es ist unsicher, ob jener P. schon in Platons Zeit lebte oder das Rätsel ihm zugeschrieben wurde. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Asopodoros

(47 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[English version] Jambograph aus Phleius, 4. oder 3.Jh. v.Chr. Athenaios kennt οἱ καταλογάδην ἴαμβοι (Prosa gemischt mit Versen?), die sich durch zusammengesetzte Nomina auszeichnen (445b), und eine Dichtung über Eros (639a), wovon er aber kein Fragment, sondern nur eine Anekdote (631f.) überliefert. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
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