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Peter Mongo

(191 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (“Stammerer,” or “hoarse”; died 490). In 477 Peter was elected bishop (patriarch) of Alexandria by opponents of the decrees of Chalcedon, as successor to Timotheus Aelurus, but he was able to take office only after the death of Timothy Salophaciolus and the recognition of the Henotikon in 482; because of the intervention of John Talaia (Acacius of Constantinople), he was not recognized by the West. He was also opposed in Egypt by Monophysites because he had signed the Henotikon and refused to condemn Chalcedon. Theologically, Peter must be considered less a…

Miles Christi (Soldiers of Christ)

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Early Christianity and Military Service – III. The Militia Christi in Primitive Christianity and the Early Church – IV. Middle Ages – V. Modern Period I. Definition Latin militia Christi (“military service for Christ”; cf. the more common miles Christi/ dei, “soldier/warrior of Christ/God”) is a metaphorical description of the life and service of Christians in the world (cf. “the church militant”). Borrowing the language of apocalypticism and imagery common to antique philosophy, it interprets the C…

Eutyches,

(122 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] priest and archimandrite of the Monastery of Job in Constantinople, exercised great influence at the court so that Cyril of Alexandria sought his assistance as mediator as early as 432. As a radical proponent of the theology of one nature (Monophysites/Monophysitism) and an opponent of the union of 433, he was accused of Apollinarianism (Apollinaris of Laodicea) in 447/48 at over 70 …

Victor

(187 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Vita, Kleriker in Karthago, Vf. einer 487/489 zu datierenden »Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae«, die die Lage der kath. Kirche während der Herrschaft der Vandalen beschreibt. In Anlehnung an die historiographische Tradition überliefert V. Dokumente; der Schluß (III 71) und die »Passio VII monachorum« (CPL 800) sind sekundär, nicht aber der Prolog. Hanns Christof Brennecke Bibliography Werke: CPL 798 M. Zink, Bf. V.s v. V. Gesch. der Glaubensverfolgung im Lande Afrika, 1883 Storia della persecuzione vandalica in Africa, hg. von S. Con…

Constantius II

(508 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (Aug 7, 317 – Nov 3, 361). The Roman emperor Constantius II was the second son of Constantine and Fausta. He was made Caesar in 324; upon Constantine's death in September of 337, he became Augustus over the eastern half of the empire. Because his primary military challenge was securing the eastern border, until 350 he spent most of his time in Antioch. After the death of Constantine II in 340, the rivalry between Constantius and his younger brot…

Pope

(242 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Pope is the designation of the bishop of Rome as successor to Peter (the disciple), head of the (Roman) Catholic Church, and holder of a universal primacy of teaching and jurisdiction within the church (Papacy). In the Greek church, πάπας/ pápas ¶ was originally a title or term of address for abbots and bishops; later it was reserved exclusively to patriarchs. There is inscriptional evidence from the second half of the 4th century for its use by the Roman bishops; in the Latin church, it has been reserved exclusively to t…

Homoousios

(383 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The Greek term ὁμοούσιος means “having the same ousia/substance/essence.” This compound adjective, which denotes the essential identity of origin and emanation, is found in Gnostic texts and also in philosophical usage after the time of Plotinus and was probably adopted from Manichaeism. It was on account of its Gnostic/Manichaeist connotation that the term homoousios was probably not employed by the exponents of a trinitarian theology of identification (Monarchianism) to describe the relationship of God and the Son/Logos. It is unc…

Severin

(187 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Noricum. Nach der einzigen Quelle, dem »Commemoratorium vitae s. Severini« (511) des Eugippius, Angehöriger der röm. Oberschicht, der als Anachoret im Osten lebte, nach dem Tod Attilas (453) nach Ufernoricum gekommen war und dort als monastischer Asket, Charismatiker und Wundertäter die romanische Bevölkerung im Niedergang des weström. Reiches polit. und sozial organisierte und ihren Abzug nach Italien vorbereitete. Die von Eugippius betonten positiven Beziehungen zum rugische…

Theophylakt

(162 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Achrida/Ochrid (ca.1050 – ca.1126), Schüler des Michael (eigentlich Konstantin) Psellos, Diakon an der Hagia Sophia und Prinzenerzieher am Hof Michaels VII. Um 1090 Erzbf. von Ochrid und Bulgarien, de facto byz. Metropolit, auch wenn die Autokephalie Bulgariens unter byz. Herrschaft de jure erhalten blieb. Der größte Teil seines lit. Werkes sind katenenartige Bibelkomm. in Abhängigkeit von der Tradition; in der Auseinandersetzung mit den Lateinern vertritt er einen gemäßigten …

Petrus Mongus

(179 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Stammler oder Heiserer; gest.490). Als Nachfolger des Timotheus Aelurus 477 von den Gegnern der Beschlüsse von Chalcedon zum Bischof (Patriarchen) von Alexandrien gewählt, konnte er erst nach dem Tod des Timotheus Salophaciolus und nach Anerkennung des Henotikon 482 sein Amt antreten, wurde aber vom Westen aufgrund der Intervention des Johannes Talaia nicht anerkannt (Acacius von Konstantinopel/Acacianisches Schisma). Wegen seiner Unterschrift unter das Henotikon und seiner Weig…

Silvester I.

(164 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Silvester I., röm. Bf. 31.1.314–31.12.335. Nach dem LP und der hagiographischen Überlieferung Römer, Presbyter unter Bf. Miltiades und Confessor in der diokletianischen Verfolgung (Christenverfolgungen: I.). Als Nachfolger des Miltiades ist er während der Herrschaft Konstantins als röm. Bf. nicht hervorgetreten. Über die Ergebnisse der Synode von Arles (Donatismus), an der er wohl wegen Gefährdung seines Episkopats nicht teilgenommen hatte, wurde er informiert; im arianischen Strei…

Studioskloster

(244 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Studioskloster, Kloster in der Psamathiaregion von Konstantinopel, gegründet von Studios (Patricius und Konsul i.J. 454). Die Kirche, eine Johannes dem Täufer geweihte dreischiffige Basilika, wurde 450 begonnen (nach 1453 in eine Moschee umgewandelt, heute die einzige vorjustinianische Kirchenruine Istanbuls). Eines der größten und wichtigsten Klöster der Hauptstadt mit reichem Besitz, wurde das S. im ausgehenden 8. und frühen 9.Jh. unter seinem Abt (hegoumenos) Theodoros Studite…

Ulfila

(268 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Ulfilas/Wulfila; Anfang 4. Jh. – 383), gotischer Nachfahre von im 3.Jh. verschleppten kappadokischen Christen. Nach seinem Biographen Auxentius von Dorostorum dreisprachiger Lektor der gotischen christl. Gemeinde, wohl 336 anläßlich einer gotischen Gesandtschaft an Konstantin von Eusebius von Nikomedien zum Bf. der Christen im gotischen Herrschaftsbereich ordiniert. In den 40er Jahren kam er mit einer Gruppe gotischer Christen als Flüchtling in das Reich und wurde von Konstantiu…

Thebäische Legion

(165 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Thebäische Legion, nach der »Passio Acaunensium martyrum« des Eucherius von Lyon (vor 450) eine Gruppe von Soldaten unter Führung des Mauritius, die unter Kaiser Maximian Anfang des 4.Jh. im Wallis als Christen hingerichtet wurden (Christenverfolgungen: I.). Der durch Eucherius bezeugte Märtyrerkult geht auf die Erhebung der Reliquien durch Bf. Theodor von Octodunum (Sitten) Ende des 4.Jh. zurück. V.a. im Früh-MA erlebte der Kult der Th. eine europaweite Ausweitung mit Schwerpunk…

Martin of Tours (Saint)

(374 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 316–397; feast day Nov 11). The writings of Sulpicius Severus about Martin are the only contemporary sources ( Epistulae et dialogae [CSEL 1]; Vita Martini [SC 133–135]). In the Vita, written c. 395/397, the various episodes are only loosely linked. They are continued after Martin's death in three letters and three (or two) Dialogues, in which Sulpicius depicts Martin according to his monastic ideals. Martin was born c. 316/317 (conflicting chronology) as the son of a tribune in Pannonian Sabaria. He grew up in Pavia, and at the …

Theophylactus of Ochrid

(176 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 1050 – c. 1126), student of Michael (actually Constantine) Psellus, deacon of the Hagia Sophia and royal tutor at the court of Michael VII. Around 1090 he was made archbishop of Ochrid and Bulgaria, de facto the Byzantine metropolitan even though Bulgaria remained autocephalous de iure under Byzantine rule. The majority of his literary output consists of biblical commentaries in a traditional vein; in the conflict with the Latins, he took a moderate position. Other surviving works include homilies, encomia of martyrs, a m…

Leo of Ochrid

(199 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Leo of Ochrid, 11th-century Byzantine theologian, chartophylax of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, after 1025 in Achrida/Ochrid as autocephalous archbishop of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule. To support the anti-Western campaigns of the patriarch Michael Cerularius, in 1053 Leo composed an encyclical to “the Franks” ( RAPC 2, no. 862), addressed to the southern Italian bishop John of Trani, in which he attacked Western liturgical practices (Saturday fasting, unleavened bread in the Eucharist) as Judaizing heresy. Commissioned b…

Maximinus the Arian (Saint)

(216 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Maximinus the Arian (Saint), a Homoean. In 428/429, Maximinus belonged to the retinue of the Goth Sigisvult in Africa, where a disputation with Augustine of Hippo on the doctrine of the Trinity took place (Possidius, Vita Augustini, 17), the minutes of which are preserved in the Conlatio (CPL 699). Augustine subsequently authored Contra Maximinum ¶ Arrianum (CPL 700) against him. Invoking the Synod of Rimini (359), Maximinus argued in favor of a subordination theology with an explicit use of biblical language. A typical aspect of latt…

Homoiousians

(910 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Homoiousians, a term in use since the end of the 19th century to denote a theological group that arose from the Arian dispute while remaining particularly ¶ indebted to its Origenistic heritage. The name derives from the term ὁμοιούσιος/ homoiousios (= of similar substance, in contrast to ὁμοούσιος/ homoousios = of the same substance; Homoousios, Homoeans) as a description of the relation of God the Father to the Logos/Son in the Trinity. Today, the neutral “Homoiousian” has replaced such contemporary polemical terms as “Arians…

Julius I, Pope (Saint)

(229 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Julius I, Pope (Saint), bishop of Rome from 337 to 352. With Athanasius's and Marcellus of Ancyra's flight to Rome in 339/340, the West became involved in the (church-)political controversies that followed upon the death of Constantine the Great. After the Eastern bishops failed to comply with a summons to attend a synod in Rome, a Roman synod convened under Julius in 340/341 annulled the verdicts of the Eastern synods against Athanasius and Marcellus and rehabilitated both of the…
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