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(370 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, aḥmad b. aḥmad b. salāma, s̲h̲ihāb al-din, an Arab author, pupil of the celebrated S̲h̲āfiʿī Faḳīh S̲h̲ams al-Dīn (al-S̲h̲ams) al-Ramlī (d. 1004=1596), was regarded in his day as an unchallenged authority and died towards the end of S̲h̲awwāl 1069 (July 1659). He composed numerous works, of which 21 have survived, in the fields of Fiḳh, geography, medicine, secret sciences and Adab. To the 17 works mentioned by Brockelinann, op. cit., we have to add 1. a Kit. al-Mud̲j̲arrabāt in Göttingen (see Verzeichn. der Hss. im Preuss. Staate, 1. Hannover, 3. Göttingen, iii. Berlin 1894, N°. 10…


(241 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Manṣūr Mawhūb b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḵh̲iḍr, an Arab philologist of an old Bag̲h̲dād family, pupil and successor of al-Tibrīzī [q. v.] in his chair of Philology at the Niẓāmīya, born 466= 1073, died on the 15th Muḥarram 539= 19th July 1144 at Bag̲h̲dād. In addition to a short handbook of Syntax, a commentary on Ibn Ḳutaiba’s Adab al-Kātib, an extract from Ḏj̲awharī’s Ṣaḥāḥ and a Kitāb Asmāʾ Ḵh̲ail al-ʿArab wa Fursānihā (cf. Aumer, Die arab. Hdss. der k. Hof-und Staatsbibliothek in Münchcn, N°. 103,2; H. Derenbourg, Les manuscrits arabes de lEscurial, N°. 270, 5) he wrote an ex…


(183 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Isḥāḳ b. Yaḥyā, Arabie philologist and bel esprit, pupil of Mubarrad and of T̲h̲aʿlab, who earned his living as a teacher in an elementary school, but in the most important of his works that has survived to us, the Kitāb al-Muwas̲h̲s̲h̲ā (ed. R. E. Brünnow, Leyden 1886, reprinted as Kitāb al-Ẓarf wa ’l-Ẓurafāʾ, Cairo 1324), prepared a handbook of rules of good society for the aristocrats of Bag̲h̲dād. In addition there survives by him a letter-writer: Tafrīd̲j̲ al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa-Sabab al-Wuṣūl ila ’l-Farad̲j̲ or Surūr al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa ’l-Albāb fī Rasāʾ…

Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ

(475 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Aḥmad b. Yūsuf, an Arabic journalist and author, born in Bairūt of Maronite parents, was educated at a Maronite school in Cairo and then for some time collaborated with S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn on the Egyptian official gazette al-Waḳaʾiʿ al-Miṣrīya. He next settled in Malta where he worked as a teacher of Arabic. While here he composed a Ḳaṣīda in praise of the Bey of Tunis (see Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Ges., v. 249 et seq.; Goldziher, Abh. Zur Arab. Phil., i. 172 et seq.) and wrote his Kitāb al-Muḥāwara, Arabic and English grammatical exercises and familiar Dialogues (Malta 1840). He gave a…


(151 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Muḥammad Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan b. Sinān b. Aḥmad al-Ḥusainī al-Hās̲h̲imī, an Arab historian, born in Ḏj̲annāba in Persia, became Ḳāḍī of Aleppo and died in 999 = 1590 after being deprived of his office. He wrote a history of 32 Muḥammadan dynasties in as many chapters, which has survived in several manuscripts, entitled al-ʿAilam al-Zāk̲h̲ir fī Aḥwāl al-Awāʾil wal-Awāk̲h̲ir which is usually called the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḏj̲annābi. This work was translated into Turkish by the author himself, (s. Flügel, Die ar., pers. und türk. Hdss. der k. k. Hofbibliothek zu Wien, Vol. ii. N°. 853); he al…


(327 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Saiyid al-S̲h̲arīf, an Arab theologian and philosopher born in 740-1339 in Tād̲j̲ū near Astarābād̲h̲, received a lectureship in S̲h̲īrāz in 779 (1377) from S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ b. Muḥammad Muẓaffar, to whom he had been introduced through al-Taftāzānī. When Tīmūr took this town in 789(1387), he sent him to Samarḳand. On Tīmūr’s death in 807 (1404) he was able to return to S̲h̲īrāz and died there in 816 = 1413. He wrote a large number of philosophical pamphlets in Arabic — some also…


(198 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣiddīḳī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī al-As̲h̲ʿarī Abu ’l-Makārim S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Arab poet and mystic, born 898 (1492) lived a year alternately in Cairo and a year in Mecca, and died in 952 (1545). Besides his Dīwān (Bibl. Nationale, Catalogue des mss. ar. by de Slane, N°. 3229—3233; Descriptive Catalogue of the Arabic, Pers. and Turk. Mss. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1870, N°. 55—7), a collection of mystical poems entitled Tard̲j̲umān al-Asrār (Vollers, Katalog der islam, usw. Hdss. der Universitätsbiblioth. zu Leipzig, N°. 573; Derenbourg, Les ms…


(159 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Bahāʾī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī, an Arab author, of Berber origin, who died in 815 — 1412; under the title Maṭāliʿ al-Budūr fī Manāzil al-Surūr he composed an anthology after the model of the Adab books but which, as the author in his preface rightly prides himself, is favourably distinguished from the mass of these books by its contents. He deals with the house and its parts, with all the pleasures of life and sport and the accessories required for these. He illustrates these subjects by anecdote…


(277 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Asʿad Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn, an Arabic and Persian author, born in 830 (1427) at Dawwān in the district of Kāzarūn, where his father was Ḳāḍī; he claimed descent from the Caliph Abū Bakr whence his Nisba al-Ṣiddīḳī. He ultimately became Ḳāḍī of Fārs and professor at the Madrasa al-ʿAitām in S̲h̲īrāz and died in 907 (1501) (according toothers in 908) near Kāzarūn. In addition to numerous commentaries on well known works of philosophical and mystical literature he wrote a series of smaller dogmatic, mystic and philosophic treatises in Arab…


(293 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abū ’l-Ṭaiyib Taḳī al-Dīn al-Makkī al-Mālikī al-Ḥaḍrāwī, an Arab historian born on the 10th Rabīʿ I 775 = 31st August 1373 at Mecca, where his early life, with the exception of six years in Madīna, was spent. In 797 = 1395, he began to travel for purposes of study and visited Cairo, Damascus, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Yemen. In 807 = 1405 he became ḳāḍī of Mecca and in 814 = 1412 received a Malikī chair in addition. He was twice deprived of these offices for brief periods in 817 = 1414 and 8…


(139 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Bāḳī Abu ’l-Maʿālī ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī, Arab author, wrote in the year 991 = 1583 a treatise on the excellencies of the Abyssinians in continuation of Suyūṭī etc. entitled al-Ṭirāz al-Manḳūs̲h̲ fī maḥāsin al-Ḥubūs̲h̲; cf. Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der ar. Hdss. der kgl. Bibliothek zu Berlin, N°. 6118; Pertsch, Die arab. Hdss. der herzogl. Bibliothek zu Got ha, N°. 1694; Vollers, Katalog der islam, u. s. w. Hdss. der Universitätsbibliothek zu Leipzig, N°. 738; Catalogus codd. mss. or. qui in Museo Brit, asserv., ii. codd. arab, N°. 323, 1268; Rieu, Supplement to the C…


(375 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. Ḏj̲aʿfar Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Kātib al-Bag̲h̲dādī, an Arab author. Born a Christian, he adopted Islām under the Caliph al-Muktafī (289—295 = 902—906) and served in the central administration at Bag̲h̲dād in which he obtained the office of Mad̲j̲lis al-Zimām in 297 under the vizier Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. al-Furāt. The date of his death is not known. Most writers (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, ed. Juynboll, ii. 323; Reinaud, Géographie d’Aboulféda, lx., lxxxiv; de Goeje, B. G. A., vi., 22; Dérenbourg, Mss. de l’Escurial, ii, x.) give 337 (958) but according to Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, vi. 204, that dat…


(275 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Nūr al-Dīn b. Burhān al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar al-Ḳāhirī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, an Arab author, born in 975 = 1567 in Cairo, was a professor in the Madrasa al-Ṣalāḥīya there and died on the 30th S̲h̲aʿbān 1044 = 17th Febr. 1634. The best known of his numerous works is the biography of the Prophet, entitled Insān al-ʿUyūn fī Sīrat al-Amīn al-Maʾmūn, usually called al-Sīra al-Ḥalabīya, an excerpt from al-Sīra al-S̲h̲aʾmīya of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Ṣāliḥī al-S̲h̲aʾmī (died 942 = 1536), considerably expanded by numerous additions, completed in 1043 = 1633, prin…

Ibn Ḳutaiba

(569 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muslim (often also called al-Ḳutaibī or al-Ḳutabī) al-Kūfī (from his birthplace) al-Marwazī (from his father’s) al-Dīnawarī, an Arab author, born in 213 = 828 at Kūfa, was for a time ḳāḍī of Dīnawar in the province of Ḏj̲abal, then lived as a teacher in Bag̲h̲dād and died there in Rad̲j̲ab 276 = Nov. 889 (according to others 270 or 271). In literary tradition he is regarded as the representative of the so-called mixed or eclectic Bag̲h̲dād grammatical school. As a matter of fact however …

Mīk̲h̲āʾīl Ṣabbāg̲h̲

(378 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, an Arabic author born of Catholic parents in Akko in 1784, was educated in Damascus and then came to Egypt. Here he joined the French army of Napoleon’s expedition, had to leave the country with them and came to Paris. The State printing works employed him as a proof-reader and the Bibliothèque Nationale as a copyist of Oriental manuscripts; his irregular habits prevented him leading a comfortable or settled existence, although de Sacy and his pupils appreciated his thorough knowledge of his m…


(1,497 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. Rabīʿa Abū ʿAḳīl, an Arab poet of the pagan period, who lived into the days of Islām ( muḥaḍram), belonged to the family of Banū Ḏj̲aʿfar, a branch of the Kilāb, who belonged to the Banū ʿĀmir and therefore to the Ḳaisī Hawāzin. According to Ibn Saʿd, vi. 21, he died in 40 (660/661) in the night on which Muʿāwiya arrived in al-Nuk̲h̲aila to conclude peace with Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. Others, like Ibn Had̲j̲ar, iii. 657, whom Nöldeke ( Fünf Moʿallaqāt, ii. 51) thinks ought to be followed, give. 41 a. h., others again 42. He is said to have reached an unusually great age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, K. al-Muʿammarīn, ed…

Ibn Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a

(352 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Maḥāṣin Taḳī al-Dīn Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī al-Ḳādīrī al-Ḥanafī al-Azrārī (the buttonmaker, so called after the trade he had followed in his youth), an Arab author, one of the most celebrated poets and stylists of the Mamlūk period, born 767 (1366) in Ḥamāt. While returning to Cairo in 791 (1390) after travelling for study, he witnessed the great conflagration in Damascus at the siege by al-Ẓāhir Barḳūḳ and was moved by it to his first rhetorical effort, an epistle to Ibn Makānis (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. von Berlin, N°. 9784). He reached the zen…

Ibn Isḥāḳ

(690 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad, an Arab author and authority on Tradition, was the grandson of Yasār, who was captured in the year 12 = 633 in the church at ʿAin al-Tamr in the ʿIrāḳ and brought to Medīna, where he became a client of the tribe of ʿAbd Allāḥ b. Ḳais. Muḥammad also grew up there; he devoted his attention to the collection of stories and legends of the life of the Prophet and thus soon ¶ came into conflict with the representatives of religious and legal tradition which dominated public opinion in the town, notably with Mālik b. Anas who decried him as being a S̲…


(253 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. Ḥiṭṭān al-Sadūsī, an Arab poet born in Baṣra, a pious man learned in the Ḳuʾrān and Tradition, who is numbered among the second class of the Baṣra Tābiʿūn and transmitted traditions on the authority of ʿAʾis̲h̲a and of some Companions of the Prophet, but in his old age is said to have been won over by his wife to the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs. As he was already too infirm to serve them with the sword, he is reckoned among the ḳaʿada (see Brünnow, Die Charidschiten, p. 29). He worked for the cause of his party as a preacher and particularly as a poet, for example he celebrated ʿAbd al-Ra…

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa

(458 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Baṭūṭa), Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, al-Lawāṭī al-Ṭand̲j̲ī, Arab traveller and author, born on the 14th Rad̲j̲ab 703 = 24th Febr. 1304 at Tangier, began the pilgrimage to Mecca 725 = 1325. He went via North Africa through Upper Egypt to the Red Sea. As he could not find a safe crossing here he turned back and reached his destination via Syria and Palestine. From Mecca he went through the ʿIrāḳ and thence visited Persia as well as Mōṣul and Diyār Bakr. He next paid a second visit to Me…
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