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(670 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] in the more limited sense of a further development of certain doctrines of Augustine into theological or philosophical concepts is to be distinguished from Augustinianism in the broader sense as dependence on Augustine's formulation of problems and responses, especially concerning humanity's relationship with God, mystical union with God and monastic …

Cochläus, Johannes

(293 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (actually Dobeneck; 1479, Raubersried, Wendelstein parish [hence cochlea, “spiral stair”], Middle-Franconia – Jan 10 or 11, 1552, Breslau), studied arts and theology in Cologne, became rector of the Latin school in Nuremberg in 1510; a humanist, he studied law in Bologna, received the Dr. theol. in 1517 in Ferrara, was consecrated to the priesthood in 1518 in Rome and appointed dean of the Liebfrauenstift in Frankfurt; he became an opponent of Luther after reading De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium, became canon of St. Viktor near Mainz i…


(110 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (St. Agnietenberg, Mons S. Agnetis) is one of the most important and influential monasteries of the Windesheim Canons Regular of St. Augustine, near Zwolle (Netherlands). In 1384, Brethren of the Common Life assembled there; they resettled on Nemelerberg; their founding document dates to 1395. Their house became a monastery in 1398; it was abolished in 1561 and disbanded in 1581. Thomas à Kempis (died 1471) was chronicler and occasional subprior of Agnetenberg; Wessel Gansfort (died 1489) was closely linked to Agnetenberg. Jan Mombaer (died 1501) entered c. 1480. Chr…

Adam Wodham

(87 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (Woodham, Godham, Goddamus; c. 1298–1358), OFM, was an important student of William of Occam. He was educated in the order's school in London, c. 1325–1329 in Oxford; he lectured on the Sentences in 1330 in Norwich, until 1333 in Oxford, also in London; until 1339, when he journeyed to Basel, he was the director of studies for the OFM in Oxford. His doctrine of grace was attacked in Oxford and Paris as semi-Pelagian (Pelagius/Pelagians/Semi-Pelagians). Christoph Burger Bibliography W.J. Courtenay, Adam Wodham, 1978.

Gerson, Jean de

(471 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (Dec 14, 1363, Gerson-lès-Barby, Flanders – Jul 12, 1429, Lyon). Gerson played many roles: professor of theology and chancellor of the University of Paris, popularizer of academic theology among the laity, theoretician of mysticism (III), church reformer, ecclesiologist, ecclesiastical politician during the Great Schism, and educationalist. As doctor christianissimus, doctor consolatorius, and cancellarius Parisiensis he significantly shaped 15th-century theology. He has been both adopted and attacked as a Gallican (Gallicanism), a …

Gregory of Rimini

(203 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1300, Rimini – end Nov, 1358, Vienna), OESA, studied theology c. 1323–1329 in Paris, lector of general studies in Bologne, Padua, Perugia, lecturer on the Sentences in Paris 1343/44 where he was magister regens until 1346, became magister regens of general studies in Padua (Oct 1347), lector principalis in Rimini (1351), and prior general (May 28, 1357). Gregory continued to have influence through the commentaries on the first two books of the Sentences that he carefully prepared himself: in theology through his consistent …


(284 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[English Version] von Cle´manges (ca.1360 Cle´manges – 1437 Paris), humanistisch gebildeter Schriftsteller, Kirchenreformer. Die Inanspruchnahme seiner Werke in den konfessionellen Auseinandersetzungen des 16.Jh. um die Deutung der Kirchengesch. beeinträchtigte deren Rezeption. 1372 Colle`ge de Navarre, Paris, 1381 M.A., ca.1387 Bacc. theol. 1394 Vf. mehrerer offizieller Schreiben der Universität Paris. 1397/98 und erneut 1403–1408 Sekretär am Hof Benedikts XIII. in Avignon (Herbst 1398–1403 Langre…

Giles of Rome

(184 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] Latin name: Aegidius (c. 1243, Rome – Dec 22, 1316, Avignon). M.A. c. 1266 at Paris, student of Thomas Aquinas 1269–1272. Lectured on the Sentences at Paris 1276/77, wrote De regimine principum (c. 1280) for Philip the Fair. First master of the Order of Augustinian Hermits in Paris 1285–1291, prior general of the Order 1292–1295. Appointed archbishop of Bourges in 1295; frequently in Rome as confidant of Boniface VIII. De renunciatione papae (1297) declares the abdication of Celestine V legitimate. De ¶ ecclesiastica potestate (1301/02) establishes the supremacy…

Nicholas of Clémanges

(336 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1360 Clémanges – 1437 Paris), humanistically educated writer and reformer. The use of his works in the 16th-century confessional conflicts over church history has interfered with their proper appreciation. In 1372 he began his studies at the Collège de Navarre in Paris, receiving his master of arts degree in 1381 and his bachelor of theology degree c. 1387; by 1394 he had written several official documents for the University of Paris. In 1397/1398 he was appointed secretary to…

Amsterdam, Universities of

(479 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] I. The University of Amsterdam – II. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) I. The University of Amsterdam In 1632, the Amsterdam city authorities opened an Athenaeum Illustre, intended as a preparation for university study. The first two professors, Gerardus Joannes Vossius for history, Caspar Barlaeus for philosophy, were removed from their posts in Leiden because of their Remonstrant incl…

Giles of Viterbo

(92 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (1469 – Nov 12, 1532), OESA, theologian, preacher, reformer, papal legate, philosopher, poet, historiographer, and kabbalist. He had contacts with the Humanists, esp. with Marsilio Ficino. He studied in Padua (1490–1493) and in Naples (1499–1501), became general vicar in 1506 and order general in 1507. Giles delivered the opening address at the Fifth Lateran Council in 1512, became cardinal in 1517, cardinal protector of the OESA in 1521, and bishop of Viterbo in 1523. Christoph Burger Bibliography J.W. O'Malley, Giles of Viterbo on Church and Reform, 1968.

Augustinus (after 1582: Triumphus) of Ancona

(138 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (1270/73 – Apr 2, 1328). Augustinus Triumphus OESA is noted for his advocacy of papal sovereignty. He taught as lector at the University of Paris in 1297 and lectured on the Sentences c. 1302 to 1306 in Paris and later in Padua. From 1313 to 1315, he taught in Paris as magister. He served as director of the order's house of studies and as counselor to the king of Naples. He also had ties with John XXI. He was influenced by Giles of Rome. His works include NT commentaries and the Summa de ecclesiastica potestate, completed in 1326, which supports …

Devotio moderna

(285 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] is a term introduced in 1420 by Henricus Pomerius for a piety movement founded by G. Groote (1340–1384). Its goal was to bring to contemporary life the piety of the primitive church, the desert fathers, and the doctors of the church: in view of death and the Last Judgment, one should repent, humble oneself, die to one's own will, have good intentions, put them in…