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Crumerum

(129 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and vicus on the Danube embankment road east of Brigetio in Pannonia superior, now Nyergesújfalu (Komárom, Hungary). The site was established at the end of the 2nd cent, and in the 2nd/3rd cents. was the base for the cohors V Callaecorum Lucensium (CIL III 3662-3664), in the 4th cent. for the equites promoti (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,30). Rebuilt in the period of Constantine and fortified with corner turrets (It. Ant. 246,2; 266,8; Not. Dign. Occ.…

Sopianis

(211 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome ( Sopianae). Roman settlement in Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 231; 264; Amm. Marc. 28,1,5; ILS 3795), modern Pécs in Hungary, situated at the starting point of significant roads into the Pannonian Limes zone: north of Carnuntum, Arrabona, Brigetio and Aquincum, southeast of Mursa, Sirmium and Singidunum. There were strong commercial relationships with Italy (imported metal goods, ceramics). Its economic upturn attracted…

Hieron Stoma

(153 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ἱερὸν Στόμα; Hieròn Stóma). The most southerly branch of the Danube estuary (Str. 7,5,1; 8,6,1; Ptol. 3,10,2), also known by the name of  Peuce (Luc. 3,202; Plin. HN 4,79; Ptol. loc. cit.; Mart. 7,7,1; Amm. Marc. 22,8,46; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,13), in Scythia Minor, modern district of Tulcea in Romania. Of the seven branches of the estuary in the Danube delta the Hieron Stoma (HS) carried the largest amount of water into the sea. The HS was dedicated to St. George by the Christians and pu…

Mursa

(230 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Roman colony from the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3279; 3560) and a military base in Pannonia Inferior (It. Anton. 131; Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Osijek (in Croatia). M. probably lay on both…

Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] …

Pathissus

(110 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] The biggest left-hand Sarmatian tributary of the Danube, the modern Tisa (Tisza, Theiß), which flows through the Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia and into the Danube n…

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Aquincum

(196 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Originally a settlement of the  Aravisci; the military and administrative centre of  Pannonia inferior, on the right bank of the Danube, with camp and canabae (Ptol. 2,15,4; It. Ant. 254,7; Amm. Marc. 19,11,8; Not. Dign. occ. 33,54; Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 5,107), governor's residence of the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD; the modern Budapest, third district. In AD 124 municipium Aelium, AD 194 colonia Aelia Septimia. The legio II adiutrix was stationed here c. AD 114. Architectural …

Scordisci

(228 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe with Illyrian and Thracian elements. They originally settled in the northern central Balkans (Str. 7,5,12) - the 'Greater S.' to the east of the Noarus as far as the Margus [1…

Breuci

(88 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,147; Suet. Tib. 9,2; Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,15,3: Βρεῦκοι; Breûkoi). Illyrian tribe, settling in Pannonia Inferior along the lower reaches of the Save, subjugated by the Romans between 12 and 10 BC; the B. took part in the Pannonian revolt of AD 6 to 9. From then on, the B. were recruited as Roman auxiliaries -- eight cohortes Breucorum are attested for the imperial period. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. Pannoniens, 1938, 15 TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 40.

Maezaei

(189 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). …

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).
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