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Callatis

(276 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Patricius (Κάλλατις; Kállatis). Port town on the western coast of the  Pontus Euxinus, modern Mangalia in Romania, founded at the end of the 6th cent. BC by  Heraclea [7] Pontica. The economic boom of the town was originally brought about by the agricultural production from its surrounding area; C. was of less importance as a harbour town, compared with Odessus, Tomis and …

Dierna

(166 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Daci, Dacia (Δίερνα; Díerna). Originally a Dacian settlement, Romanized since Trajan, modern Orşova in Banat/Romania. Supposedly already a colonia iuris Italici in Trajan's time (Ulpianus in Dig. 50,15,1,8) and a municipium in the Severian period (CIL III 14468). D. was located on the Danube west of Drobeta and was the starting point of the rural road to Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa. A ports, toll station and brick production were located nearby. The military garrison was supplied by the cohors I Brittonum miliaria,…

Durostorum

(297 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Settlement on the right bank of the lower Danube in Moesia inferior, the modern Silistra (northern Bulgaria). Customs post and important junction between the country road from Marcianopolis and the road along the bank of the Danube leading into the delta zone. The military importance of D. is demonstrated by the presence there of the legio IX Claudia (from AD 105/6). It was probably under Antoninus Pius that a civilian settlement ( canabae) arose in D., elevated …

Potaissa

(175 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Wine | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Legio | Limes (Ptol. 3,8,7: Πατρούισσα/ Patroúissa; Geogr. Rav. 4,14: Potabissa; CIL III 1627; CIL III 2086: Patavisensis). Settlement in Dacia Porolossensis to the southeast of Napoca, modern Turda (district of Cluj in Romania). The significance of P. consisted in its military garrison, which from the outbreak of the Marcomanni Wars in AD 168/9 was formed by the legio V Macedonica. The original vicus gained size and significance after the rise of the Canabae

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …

Carsium

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort on the embankment road of the Danube, built under Trajan, modern Hîrşova/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3 Carsio; It. Ant. 224; Not. Dign. or. 39,22 Carso; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,2 Carsion; Ptol. 3,10,5 Κάρσους; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20 Καρσώ). Road junction, ford across the Danube. Destroyed by the Huns, rebuilt, into the 6th cent. garrison for military units, amongst them the legio I Italica, ala II Hispanorum et Aravacorum, milites Scythici. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography R. Vulpe, Histoire ancienne de la Do…

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Gorsium

(176 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (It. Ant. 264,4; 265,1; CIL III 3342f.; 3346; 11345). Roman camp and civil settlement in Pannonia inferior, modern Tác/Fejér (near Székesfehérvár/Hungary). Originally, G. was the centre of the Celtic Aravisci; during the Roman period, it was the intersection of the roads Sopianae─Aquincum and Sopianae─Brigetio. Rich archaeological finds attest to the importance of G. (remnants of buildings, burial ground). In the 1st cent. AD the camp which harboured the ala I Scubulorum was installed. The garrison was discharged…

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Viminacium

(427 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman legion camp and civil settlement in Moesia superior (Ptol. 3,9,3: Οὐιμινάκιον/ Ouiminákion; Procop. Aed. 4,5,17; 4,6,1: Βιμινάκιον/ Biminákion; Eutr. 9,20,2; Not. Dign. Or. 41,5;16;31;38; It. Ant. 133,2 f.; 217,5; It. Burd. 564,8: civitas Viminatio; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Viminatio) near modern Kostolac (Serbia). The settlement was located in the area of the Celtic Scordisci on the right shore of the Mlava near the mouth of the …

Siscia

(190 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome Roman settlement in Pannonia superior ('Sicce', Geogr. Rav. 4,20; Σεγεστική/ Segestikḗ, Str. 7,5,2) at the confluence of the Colapis (modern  Kulpa) and Savus (modern Sava), modern Sisak in Croatia. The region had already been settled in the pre-Roman period. In 35 BC it came under Roman rule. In the 1st cent. AD the Legio IX Hispania was stationed there until 42/3. Under Vespasian, S. was elevated to a colonia, under Septimius [II 7] Severus designated Colonia Flavia…

Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Cotini

(114 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic people that settled in the 1st cent. AD with other small tribes to the north of the  Marcomanni and  Quadi. Renowned as miners, they apparently owed the Quadi tribute. Apart from mining iron ore, it may be assumed that they manufactured weapons. Their location is disputed but it was probably in central Slovakia near the Slovakian Ore Mountains. In the Marcomanni Wars the C. sided with the Romans (Cass. Dio 72,12) and were later settled between the Danube and the Drava (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,11). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Cz…

Montana

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Camp and civilian settlement in Moesia inferior, later Dacia ripensis (ILS 9275), formerly Mihajlovgrad, now M. (NW Bulgaria). An important military base from the 1st/2nd cents. AD, raised to a municipium around AD 161-163. Fortifications were built in the 3rd cent. against Gothic assaults. Evidence of continuity of settlement even into late antiquity. Inscriptions, coin finds. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR K 34 Sofia, 1976, 88  V. Velkov, G. Alexandrov, Epigraphische Denkmäler aus M. (Monta…
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