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(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), wood. In the major part of the Muslim world, wood is fairly scarce and for this reason plays a relatively minor rôle in the material life of its populations in comparison with that of societies in which it is more plentiful. However, precisely because its use is limited, it occupies an important place in artistic creation, for example in private furniture and the appurtenances of mosques. Architecturally, it is employed for doors, roofs, arches, etc. and ceilings; it is also used in the ga…


(1,558 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three-Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rum. Kayk̲h̲usraw i , son and one of the successors of Kilid̲j̲ Arslān II [ q.v.]. When the latter, at the age of about seventy, decided ca. 583/1187 to divide his territories among his ten sons, a brother and a nephew, G̲h̲iyāth al-Dīn Kayk̲h̲usraw got Sozopolis or Uluborlu, on the borders of the Byzantine territory, perhaps because he was the son of a Byzantine mother. He thus came in contact with Greek Christians on one side, with groups of Turkmen frontier warriors ( ud̲j̲ ) who were pushing forward in that direction on…

Ibn Abī Ṭayyiʾ

(360 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Yaḥyā b. Ḥamīd al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Ḥalabī (575/1180- ca. 625-30/1228-33), an important S̲h̲īʿī historian of Aleppo, and in particular the author of a universal History, Maʿādin al-d̲h̲ahab fi taʾrīk̲h̲ al-mulūk wa ’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ wa d̲h̲awi ’l-ratab , which even the Sunnī writers, whether or not they acknowledge the fact, were unable to refrain from utilizing. Important extracts from it are to be found preserved in the History of Ibn al-Furāt [ q.v.] and the Rawḍatayn of Abū S̲h̲āma [ q.v.], dealing with the first three-quarters of the 6th/12th century; it was known also …

Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa

(126 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , known as Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa, author of a manual of ḥisba , enlarging, from an Egyptian point of view, that of the Syrian writer of the previous century, al-S̲h̲ayzarī. It was published by R. Levy, with an analysis in English, under the doubtful title of Maʿālim al-ḳurba fī aḥkām al-ḥisba ( GMS, n.s. xii, London 1938); according to the only biographical notice so far discovered, that by Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar ( Durar , Ḥaydarābād no. 446), the author died in 729/1329, and nothing more is known of him. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography In addit…


(147 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
verbal noun of the fourth form of the root w.g̲h̲.r . (?), meaning here an exemption or a privilege with respect to taxes. The classical ʿAbbāsid administration used This term both for the privilege, and for the land which was covered by This privilege, of having to pay only one single tax payment, directly to the Treasury and not through tax-collectors. The districts of Mard̲j̲ and Karad̲j̲ in western Iran are regularly referred to as al-Ig̲h̲ārayn even after they had lost the official status which earned them This name. In the following centuries the term īg̲h̲ār d…


(1,724 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | X. de Planhol
(or ḳarasi̇ ). 1. The name of a Turkish chief in Asia Minor and of the dynasty arising from him; his territory has retained this name until the present time (sc. the ancient Mysia, the coastland and hinterland of the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles). Only unsubstantiated hypotheses have so far been put forward for the sense and etymology of the name. Indeed, the whole history of the dynasty, the first of those which were to be suppressed by the Ottomans, is wrapped in obscurity. The Byzantine historian Ducas, who wrote 150 years after the events in question, classes Ḳarasi̊ amon…


(1,701 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of two Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm (Asia Minor). Kaykāʾūs I . Succeeding his father Kayk̲h̲usraw I [ q.v.] after the battle in which the latter perished (608/1211), he at first had to rid himself of the rivalry of his brothers Kayferīdūn and Kayḳubād̲h̲ [ q.v.]. After that he had no further internal difficulties. His reign is particularly marked by the combination of a policy of peace towards the Greeks of Nicaea with interventions on the southern, northern and eastern frontiers. In the south, where Kayk̲h̲usraw had taken Anṭāliya, he…


(1,264 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of one of the Kurdish chieftains (and of the dynasty descended from him) who, in the 4th/10th century and at the beginning of the 5th/11th century, succeeded in founding and maintaining in Western Iran and Upper Mesopotamia more or less autonomous and lasting principalities. Ḥasanwayh b. Ḥusayn (Abu ’l-Fawāris) belonged to a branch of the Kurdish tribe of the Barzikānī, other groups of which were led by several of his relatives (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii, 518-9). The death of two uncles (349/960 and 350/961) and the …


(9,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Hardy, P.
(i)—the poll-tax which, in traditional Muslim law, is levied on non-Muslims in Muslim states. The history of the origins of the d̲j̲izya is extremely complex, for three different reasons: first, the writers who, in the ʿAbbāsid period, tried to collect the available materials relating to the operation of the d̲j̲izya and the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ found themselves confronted by texts in which these words were used with different meanings, at times in a wide sense, at others in a technical way and even then varying, so that in order to …


(719 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a stronghold of eastern Anatolia situated on a rock (Armenian, pert ) 350 m./1,100 ft. above the plain of K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.], to be identified with the Ḥiṣna Zayt of the Aramaic texts (and already in Ammianus Marcellinus, castellum Ziata , whence, through a confusion, the Arabic Ḥiṣn Ziyād, a term in use till the 16th century). The corrupted form K̲h̲arput is found in colloquial Armenian (whence already in the Byzantine author Cedrenos, ii, 419) and in modern Turkish. The Latin and French authors at the time of t…


(3,859 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, term for a form of administrative grant, often (wrongly) translated by the European word “fief” (German Lehn). The nature of the iḳṭāʿ varied according to time and place, and a translation borrowed from other systems of institutions and conceptions has served only too often to mislead Western historians, and following them, even those of the East. In the article ḍayʿa it was seen how the Muslim state, in its early centuries, had distributed to its notables portions of its territory called ḳaṭāʾiʿ (pl. of ḳaṭīʿa ). These portions were made over, in fact, in…


(134 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “protection”, is used, often together with ḥimāya [ q.v.], to designate certain social practices. Originally, it primarily denoted the protection which Arab tribes extended to merchants, travellers and pilgrims crossing their territories, often in return for payment or as part of an agreement [see īlāf ]. Later, the word’s usage became extended to the “protection” in return for an obligatory payment exacted by various social groups from other groups or from richer individuals (e.g., by the ʿayyārūn and futuwwa [ qq.v.] in the towns). Once the military class had assumed …

Alp Arslan

(1,479 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
ʿaḍud al-dawla abū s̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ muḥammad b. dāʾūd čag̲h̲ribeg , celebrated Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan, the second of the dynasty (455/1063-465/1073). Born probably in 421/1030, at an early age he led the armies of his father Čag̲h̲ribeg with great success, especially against the G̲h̲aznawids, and in 450/1058 he saved his uncle, the sultan Ṭug̲h̲rilbeg, from the revolt of Ibrāhīm Inal in Persia. Two or three years later he succeeded Čag̲h̲ribeg, who had been ill for a long time, and at the end…

Ibn al-Ṭuwayr

(111 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. al-Ḥasan . . . al-Ḳaysarānī al-Miṣrī (525-617/1130-1220), high-ranking official of the later Fāṭimids, wrote in the reign of Salāḥ al-Dīn a “History of the two dynasties”, Nuzhat al-muḳlatayn fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawlatayn , an important work now unfortunately lost, to which the great compilers of the Mamlūk period, Ibn al-Furāt, al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, and even before them Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, owe the most important part of their knowledge of the history of the later Fāṭimids and of the general institutions of the régime. (Cl. Cahen) Bibl…


(17,607 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Deny, J.
, Armenia, a country of Hither Asia. I. Geographical Outline. Armenia is the central and most elevated part of Hither Asia. Encompassed between two mountain chains, the Pontic chain to the north and the chain of the Taurus to the south, it lies between Asia Minor to the west of the Euphrates, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and the region south-west of the Caspian (on a level with the confluence of the Kurr [Kura] and the Araxes) to the east, the Pontic regions to the north-west, the Caucasus (from which the line of the…


(1,372 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L. | Cahen, Cl.
, locusts. The word is a collective noun, the nom. unit, being d̲j̲arāda , which is applied to the male and the female alike. No cognate synonym seems to exist in the other Semitic languages. For the different stages of the locust’s development the Arabic language possesses special names (such as sirwa , dabā , g̲h̲awghāʾ , k̲h̲ayfān , etc.) which, however, are variously defined by different authorities. Being found in abundance in the homeland of the Arabs, locusts were often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poetry and proverbs. In the Ḳurʾān they figu…


(879 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, an important seigneurial family which, though it never completely freed itself from the overlordship of its powerful neighbours, possessed for a century extensive lands in Upper Mesopotamia, partly in the east around Irbil and partly in the west, for a shorter period, around Ḥarrān. The founder of the family, Zayn al-Dīn ʿAlī Küčük b. Begtegin, was a Turcoman officer whose fortune was linked from the beginning with that of Zenki. Probably as a result of his participation in this prince’s campa…


(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…


(349 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Mangūd̲j̲ak ), a Turkmen chief who was the eponym of a minor dynasty which appears in history with his son Isḥāḳ in 512/1118 in eastern Anatolia around the town of Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.], but including also Diwrigi and Kog̲h̲onia/Colonia-Ḳara Ḥiṣār S̲h̲arḳī. His territory accordingly lay between that of the Dānis̲h̲mendids [ q.v.] on the west, of the Saltuḳids [ q.v.] of Erzerum on the east, of the Byzantine province of Trebizond on the north and of the Artuḳid principalities [see artuḳids ] on the south; it thus commanded the traditional highway for inva…


(1,932 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(atabeg), title of a high dignitary under the Sald̲j̲ūḳids and their successors. The term is Turkish and first makes its appearance in Muslim history with the Sald̲j̲ūḳids; it is therefore reasonable to enquire whether any precedents exist in the Turkish societies of Central Asia. So far no occurrence of the actual word seems to have been reported and the fact that in the Ork̲h̲on civilisation there is apparently a person called ata , father, acting as a tutor to a young prince, is too vague to enable one to affirm a connexion; the same is true…
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