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(57 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), a term used to denote certain juridical categories of landed estates in Syria in the time of the Mamlūks. The word has no connection with the Arabic root f.-ṣ.-l ., but is derived, according to al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , viii, 256, “from the Frankish” vassal . (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cl. Cahen, in JESHO, xviii (1975), 238.


(89 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
or Tald̲j̲iʾa , a method of protection by a superior of his inferiors, on which see the articles ḍayʿa and ḥimāya , adding to the bibliography Y. Linant de Bellefonds, Volonté interne et volonté déclarée en droit musulman, in Revue Intern , de Droit Comparé , x (1958), 513 ( tald̲j̲iʾa occurring in law as a fictitious sale with the object of gaining protection against confiscation, taxes, etc.; but the question arises of how the property is to be regained once the danger is over). (Cl. Cahen)


(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…


(262 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Malik ), name of one of the Og̲h̲uz chieftains who set themselves up at K̲h̲urāsān after the dislocation of the kingdom of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar; unable to maintain his position there before the pressure of the K̲h̲wārizmian state, he found a way to profit from the dissensions among the Sald̲j̲ūḳids of Kirmān to lay hands on that principality (582/1186) and to hold it, in spite of hostilities on the borders of Sistān, Fārs, and the Persian Gulf, until his death in 591/1195. After his death, however, Kirmān in its turn became absorbed within the K̲h̲wārizmian empire, on account of in…


(3,905 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | L. Gardet
(A.), in economic life, gain. As is well known, in its main trends Islam is not a doctrine of renunciation of the world, but one of respect for the commandments of God according to the uses of the world, which He has given to man for his benefit. There is therefore no objection whatsoever to a man’s realising, as long as it is by legal means, the gain necessary to improve his life and that of his dependents. The Prophet was born into a society of merchants, to whom he often spoke in their own la…


(4,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, (not urṭukids ), a Turkish dynasty which reigned over the, whole or part of Diyār Bakr, either independently or under Mongol protectorate, from the end of the 5th/11th to the beginning of the 9th/15th century. Artuḳ, son of Ekseb, belonged to the Turkoman tribe Döger [ q.v.]. In 1073 he was in Asia Minor, operating for and against the Byzantine Emperor ¶ ¶ Michael VII, but he later appears principally as an officer in the service of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ Maliks̲h̲āh. In 1077 he brought the Carmathians of Baḥrayn under the rule of Maliks̲h̲āh; in 1079 Maliks̲…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(966 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baysānī al-ʿAsḳalānī , Mūḥyī ( Mud̲j̲īr ) al-Dīn , the famous counsellor and secretary to Saladin, was born on 15 D̲j̲umādā II 529/3 April 1135 at ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.], where his father, a native of Baysān, known as al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was the judge. He was put by his father into the Dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Cairo as a trainee, about 543-4/1148-9. Already before 548/1153 he entered the service of the ḳāḍī of Alexandria, Ibn Ḥadīd, as a secretary. As the elegant reports he drafted there bro…


(1,664 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(berkyaruk), fourth Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sulṭān, in whose time the visible decline of the regime began. Although the eldest of the sons of Maliks̲h̲āh, he was only thirteen years old on the latter’s death (S̲h̲awwāl 485/November 1092) and, unlike his father, who at a similar age had been guided by his vizier and atabeg Niẓām al-Mulk, he lacked a man of undisputed authority in his entourage. Moreover, Maliks̲h̲āh’s last wife, Turkān Ḵh̲ātūn, a woman also of the noblest birth, had dominated her husband in the lat…

al-Makīn b. al-ʿAmīd

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Coquin, R.G.
, D̲j̲ird̲j̲is , (602-72/1205-73) Arabic-speaking Coptic historian whose History , covering the period from the creation of the world to the year 658/1260, was one of the very first mediaeval oriental chronicles to become known in Europe and consequently played a significant role in the early researches of modern Islamic scholars. The encyclopaedists, who since the 18th century have provided a biography of al-Makīn which is still reproduced by Brockelmann (I, 348) and Graf ( GCAL, i, 348), have omitted to indicate their sources; all that is known is that the history of…


(10,903 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Name of the dynasty founded by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn b. Ayyūb, which, at the end of the 6th/12th century and in the first half of the 7th/13th century, ruled Egypt, Muslim Syria-Palestine, the major part of Upper Mesopotamia, and the Yemen. The eponym of the family, Ayyūb b. S̲h̲ād̲h̲ī b. Marwān, born in the village of Ad̲j̲danaḳān near Dvin (Dabīl) in Armenia, belonged to the Rawwādī clan of the Kurdish tribe of the Had̲h̲bānī, and, at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, had been in the service of the S̲h̲addādid dynasty, likewise Kurdish,…


(812 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm. Kayḳubād i , ʿalāʾ al-dīn was the most distinguished of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm, to whom many later sovereigns would connect themselves. Removed from power by his brother and predecessor Kaykāʾūs I [ q.v.], he succeeded him in 618/1220. His foreign policy made his dynasty one of the most powerful of his time. In the south he expanded his power, from the very beginning of his reign, over a great part of the Cilician Taurus, where he settled Turkmens. He enlarged his maritime frontiers, i…


(3,077 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Goodwin, G.
(Arabic and Turkish orthography, Ḳūniya), known in antiquity as Iconium, an important town lying on the edge of the Anatolian plateau, on a diagonal line connecting the Dardanelles with the Taurus passes leading into Syria. 1. History. Konya was, during the centuries of Arab invasion, a Byzantine military base which the attackers seem for this reason to have more or less deliberately avoided and circumvented, in preference either for Tarsus [see ṭarsūs ] to the south or especially for Cappadocia by the northern routes; this would seem to explai…


(420 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, prince, son; heir apparet (344/955) and successor (356/967) of Muʾizz al-Dawla in ʿIrāḳ, with the laḳab of ʿIzz al-Dawla. He appears to have had little talent for government, which, unlike his father, he entrusted to wazīrs (chosen without any great discernment) so as to be free to amuse himself, though he still impeded the conduct of affaire by his impetuous verbal or active intervention. At the beginning of his reign he continued his father’s policy of hostility to the Ḥamdānid Abū Tag̲h̲lib of Mawṣil and to the autonomous chieftain ¶ of the Baṭīḥa, ʿImrān b. S̲h̲āhīn. Furthermor…


(763 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, nūr al-dawla balak b. bahrām b. artuḳ , one of the first Artuḳids, known chiefly as a tough warrior. He appears in history in 489/1096 as commander of Sarud̲j̲ on the Middle Euphrates. This locality being taken from him by the Crusaders in the following year, and his uncle Ilg̲h̲āzī having been appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Sulṭān Muḥammad, he accompanied him, and is found in the following years struggling vainly for the little towns of ʿĀna and Ḥadīt̲h̲a, against Arabs, or prot…


(226 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Claudias, a locality of ancient origin (the Claudiopolis of Pliny? cf. Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), the exact site of which has not been determined but which almost certainly commanded the entrance to the Euphrates gorges below Malaṭya/Melitene, between the eastern Taurus and the K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.]. One of the fortified places on the frontier that were captured and re-captured by the Arabs and the Byzantines, it was restored by al-Mansūr, but again fell into Byzantine hands, together with the province of Melitene, in the middle of the 4th/10th …


(982 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, plu. ḍiyāʿ , estate. The word can mean generally a rural property of a certain size, but is understood in a more precise sense in fiscal contexts. It is known that at the time of the Conquests the local people were left in possession of their lands, subject to their paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ ; it was later understood that the conversion of the landowner would not change the fiscal status of the land. In contradistinction to the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ lands there were the original properties of the Arabs, especially in Arabia, and the grants made in favour of notables or their depende…

Köse Dag̲h̲

(382 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a land-corridor some 50 miles/80 km. to the north-west of Sīwās where there took place in 641/1243, probably on 6 S̲h̲awwāl/26 June, the decisive battle which opened up Asia Minor to the Mongols and sounded the knell for the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Rūm. The first contacts of the Mongols and Sald̲j̲ūḳs went back to the last years of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳubād I [ q.v.], but at that time Anatolia was too well-protected in relation to the conquests already effected by the Mongols for the latter really to have any plans for conquering it. It was only under Kayk̲h̲usraw II [ q.v.] that the threat took d…


(418 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Badr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil al-Malik al-Raḥīm , a freedman, possibly black, of the last Zangids of Mosul, whose régime he prolonged. Designated by Arslān S̲h̲āh I on his death in 607/1210-1 as regent of the principality for his young son al-Ḳāhir, then by the latter (d. 615/1218) for his infant son, Arslān S̲h̲āh II, he was officially designated, with a caliphal diploma, as lord in 629/1232. The chronicles mention him especially for his interminable minor clashes with the lesser …


(97 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, one of the leaders of the group of the Og̲h̲uz of Ḵh̲urāsān which, after the capture and death of its leader Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ (427/1036?), was expelled from the province by G̲h̲aznawid troops on account of its depredations, and continued its pillaging across central and western Iran as far as the borders of Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia, where it was annihilated by the Bedouin and Kurds in 435/1044. See EI 1, s.v., the article sald̲j̲ūḳids , and Cl. Cahen, Le Maliknameh et l’histoire des origines seldjukides , in Oriens , 1949, 57. (Cl. Cahen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Yūsuf

(201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ḥakkār?), the private secretary and trusted adviser of the Būyid amīr ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.] from the very beginning to the end of his reign, and then three times alternatively the vizier and in disgrace in regard to his sons Ṣamṣām al-Dawla and Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. below]. He is the author of a collection of official correspondence ( ins̲h̲āʾ ), largely preserved in ms. Petermann 406 (Ahlwardt 8625), which is however limited to the period of ʿAḍud al-Dawla’s reign (some fragments lacking here are cited in al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma , ii, 89-90) and…
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