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Būz-Abeh

(358 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, governor of Fārs under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Būz-Abeh was one of the amīr s of Mengubars, the governor of Fārs, for whom he administered the province of Ḵh̲ūzistān. He was also in the army of his superior when the latter, accompanied by other amīrs, moved against the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Masʿūd and was made prisoner at the battle of Kurs̲h̲anba (other sources call the scene of the encounter Pand̲j̲ Angus̲h̲t), later being put to death, in 532/1137-38. Since, after their victory, the sultan’s troops began to plunder the enemy camp, Būz-Abeh attacked and dispersed them. Several prominent amīrs of th…

Buwayhids or Būyids

(7,567 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the most important of the dynasties which, first in the Iranian plateau then in ʿIrāḳ, side by side with the Sāmānids of Ḵh̲urāsān and of Māwarāʾ al-Nahr, marked the “Iranian intermezzo” (Minorsky) between the Arab domination of early Islam and the Turkish conquest of the 5th/11th century. Its name derives from Buwayh or Būyeh, the father of three brothers who founded it, ʿAlī, al-Ḥasan, and the youngest, Aḥmad. Condottieri of humble birth, they belonged to the population of the Daylamites [ q.v.] who, newly won over to (S̲h̲iʿī) Islam, were at that time enlisting in large …

Ibn al-Ḳalānisī

(384 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. Asad ... al-Tamīmī ( ca. 465-555/1073-1160), a member of an important family of Damascus, who for a time was raʾīs of that town, and above all was its historian for the period extending from the middle of the 4th/10th century to 555/1160. The History of Ibn al-Ḳalānisī, known simply by the title D̲h̲ayl tāʾrīk̲h̲ Dimas̲h̲ḳ , consists of two parts, the limits being somewhat imprecise. The first part, the opening pages of which are lost, and which goes down approximately to the time of the author’s youth, is based…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan IV

(335 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, better known by his laḳab of Rukn al-Dīn, one of the sons and successors of K̲h̲usraw II (1246). It was at the beginning of the period of the Mongol protectorate that, the three sons of the late sovereign all being minors, the senior amirs, in order to safeguard the unity of the state, sought to install, under their own executive power, a sultanate shared jointly between the three young princes; Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan was sent on a mission to the Mongol chief Batu to persuade him to accept this solution. This very mission alone established a…

D̲h̲imma

(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …

Atsi̊̊z b. Uvak

(541 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(and not Abak), was one of the chiefs of the Turkomāns (perhaps of the tribe of the Īwāī and perhaps at the beginning of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid expansion established in Ḵh̲wārizm), who in 1070 had followed Erisgen (?), husband of a daughter of Alp-Arslan, into Asia Minor in his flight to Byzantine territory; but he refused to take service in the Christian army, and had responded to the appeal made to him by the Fāṭimid government, requesting him to come and bring some of the Palestine Bedouin to heel (…

Ḳaṭiʿ̊ʿa

(75 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, pl. ḳaṭāʾīʿ , a Muslim administrative term designating, on the one hand, those concessions made to private individuals on state lands in the first centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra (see ḍayʿa ), and, on the other hand, the fixed sum of a tax or tribute, in contradistinction to taxation by proportional method or some variable means. The verb ḳaṭaʿa is also used to mean “to impose”, normally followed by ḳaṭīʿatan . (C. Cahen)

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II

(637 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, son and successor of Masʿūd I, and one of the most important sultans of Rūm (1155-92). Masʿūd had, in dealing with the Greeks, succeeded in restoring the position of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in relation to the Dānis̲h̲mendids who were divided by quarrels over the succession. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan at first maintained this policy, and carried it to the extent of offering the Basileus Manuel Comnenus at Constantinople in 1162 a form of allegiance which, in concrete terms, cost him nothing. He was then able to make himself mast…

Čās̲h̲na-Gīr

(135 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, in Persian, ‘taster’, title of an official, generally an amīr , at the court of the Muslim sovereigns (including the Mamlūks) from the time of the Sald̲j̲ūkids. It is not always clear in what way he is connected with the overseer of the food, k̲h̲ w ānsalār ; perhaps the two are often confused. The title does not appear to be found, even in Iran, under previous dynasties, although caliphs and princes did undoubtedly have overseers for their food, and even had it tasted before they eat, as the dishes were always suspected of being poisoned. The term čās̲h̲na-gīr is also…

ʿArrāda

(245 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a mediaeval artillery engine. In general, from Europe to China, there were everywhere in existence two main types of engines of projection which were operated by more than one man. In the case of the one, the heavy type of engine, the projectile was hurled from a great distance by virtue of the centrifugal force produced by the rocking of a great arm: these were the mand̲j̲anīḳ or mangonels; in the case of the other, a lighter engine, the projectile was discharged by the impact of a shaft forcibly impelled by the release of a rope: these were the ʿarrāda . The principle of the ʿarrāda only differs…

Bursuḳ

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Eastern Turkish = “badger”), one of the chief officers of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs, whose descendants also played a notable rôle at the beginning of the 6th/12th century. Bursuḳ, ¶ although youthful, entered history as one of the principal amīrs in the service of Ṭug̲h̲ril-Beg, who after restoring control in Bag̲h̲dād following the tragedies of the years 450-51/1058-59, made Bursuḳ his first s̲h̲iḥna (military commander) in Bag̲h̲dād. However, under the pacified Sald̲j̲ūḳid organisation, the essential power belonged to the ʿamīd , the civil administrator…

ʿAmīd

(359 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ar.), title of high officials of the Sāmānid-G̲h̲aznawid administration, which the Sald̲j̲ūḳids, the inheritors of their institutions and personnel, extended throughout their empire. The word, properly speaking, does not denote a function, but the rank of the class of officials from whom the civil governors, ʿāmil (as opposed to the military governors, sallār , s̲h̲iḥna ), were recruited; thus Sibṭ Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī, Mirʾāt al-Zamān , MS Paris 1503, 193v: "one of the ʿumadā " is appointed governor; the same author, supplemented by Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, …

Arslan-arg̲h̲ūn

(283 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, frère de Maliks̲h̲āh qui, à la mort de celui-ci, mit la main sur le Ḵh̲urāsān et la province de Balk̲h̲, défit et mit à mort un autre frère, Buribars, envoyé contre lui (488/1095), mais se fit mal voir en raison des mesures de terreur prises contre les complices du vaincu et des destructions préventives des remparts de Merv, Nis̲h̲āpūr, Sarak̲h̲s, Sabzawār, etc. ordonnées par lui, et finit tué par un de ses esclaves en 490; son jeune fils de sept ans fut sans peine alors écarté par Sand̲j̲ar, …

Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ

(639 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, fils, probablement aîné, de l’aïeul et éponyme des dynasties sald̲j̲ūḳides, Sald̲j̲ūḳ. Son histoire se confond avec celle des premiers contacts entre les Og̲h̲uz conduits par sa famille et les États musulmans d’Asie Centrale. Il s’appelait proprement Isrāʾīl (cf. ses frères Mīk̲h̲āʾīl et Mūsā, prénoms sous lesquels on peut voir une influence k̲h̲azare israélite ou centre-asiatique nestorienne), avec Arslan comme nom totémique (cf. ses illustres neveux Ṭug̲h̲ril Muḥammad et Čag̲h̲rī Dāʾūd). Les…

Besni

(442 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, au moyen âge Behesnī, du syriaque Bet Hesnā, localité occupant un important carrefour, situé à près de 900 mètres, en particulier des routes Malatya-Alep et (Cilicie)-Marʿas̲h̲-Diyār Bakr; Besni tenait la charnière de la série des places-fortes qui, au Nord de la grande boucle de l’Euphrate, gardaient les vallées supérieures de ses affluents de rive droite au contact entre plateaux et hautes chaînes du Taurus oriental, et de celles qui, vers le Sud, surveillaient les petits bassins au Nord de …

Croisades

(3,373 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, expéditions militaires et religieuses formées en Europe occidentale et destinées à reprendre à l’Islam et à défendre contre lui les Lieux Saints de Palestine et la Syrie proche; plus tard, le terme s’est étendu à toutes guerres ¶ menées contre des «infidèles», voire à toutes entreprises conduites au nom d’une cause sincère ou prétendue telle; ces extensions ne nous concernent naturellement pas ici. La première Croisade (1096-99), qu’avaient précédée des expéditions contre les Musulmans d’Occident, a abouti à la constitution autour de Jérusalem, Tripoli, An…

Itāwa

(64 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(from atā , apparently a doublet of ʿaṭā ) literally “gift”, a general term met with, especially in pre- and proto-Islamic times, meaning a vague tribu te or lump payment madt, for example, to or by a tribe or other group; later the words describes, sometimes in a denigrating way, a tip or bribe. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography F. Løkkegaard, Islamic Taxation, index, s.v.

Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ

(720 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the son, probably the elder son, of the ancestor and eponym of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasties, Sald̲j̲ūḳ. His history is merged in that of the first contacts between the Og̲h̲uz led by his family and the Muslim states of Central Asia. His personal name was Isrāʾīl (cf. his brothers Mīk̲h̲āʾīl and Mūsā, fore-names in which it is possible to see Jewish Ḵh̲azar or Nestorian Central-Asian influence), with Arslan as a totemic name (cf. his famous nephews Ṭug̲h̲ril Muḥammad and Čag̲h̲rī Dāʾūd). The begin…

K̲h̲usraw Fīrūz

(249 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of the last Būyid ruler, better known by his laḳab of al-Malik al-Raḥīm. He succeeded his father Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār in ʿIrāḳ in 440/1048. Most of his reign was spent in disputing with his brother Fulād̲h̲ Sūtūn the possession of Fārs and K̲h̲ūzistān and in trying to maintain discipline amongst the Turkish troops of his general al-Basāsīrī [ q.v.]. There is no discernible doctrinal reason for his adoption, in defiance cf the caliph, of an epithet reserved for God. In any case, the enfeeblement of the Būyid dynasty allowed the caliph in question, al-Ḳā…

al-Mak̲h̲zūmī

(396 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī , author of an important, long-forgotten fiscal treatise, al-Minhād̲j̲ fī ʿilm k̲h̲arād̲j̲ Miṣr , a large part of which was recently discovered in the acephalous ms. Add. 23,483 in the British Museum. Al-Mak̲h̲zūmī belonged to a great family dating back to the origins of Islam. He was a ḳāḍī and it was owing to this title, although he was a S̲h̲āfiʿī as were nearly all the Egyptians, that the Fāṭimids, as was their custom, entrusted him with the duties of controlling the employees of the tax office, near…
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