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Crusades

(3,532 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Originally applied to military and religious expeditions organized in Western Europe and intended to take back from and defend against Islam the Holy Places of Palestine and nearby Syria, the term was later extended to all wars waged against "infidels" and even to any undertaking carried out in the name of a worthy or supposedly worthy cause; naturally these extensions of meaning are not part of our present concern. The first Crusade (1096-99), following on from expeditions against the Muslims in the West, led to the establishment around Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antio…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(275 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, al-malik al-amd̲j̲ad , b. Farruk̲h̲ S̲h̲āh b. S̲h̲āhāns̲h̲āh b. Ayyūb, grand nephew of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, was appointed by the latter to succeed his father at Baʿlbak when the latter died in 578/1182 (ʿImād al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī, al-Barḳ al-S̲h̲āmī , Bodl. MS. Marsh 425, 36r°, followed by Abū S̲h̲āma, Rawḍatayn 1, Cairo, 33-4), and kept Baʿlbak when the Ayyūbid territories were divided up after the death of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn. From then on he seems always to have been a faithful vassal of the Ayyūbid ruling at Damascus (Ibn Wāṣil, Mufarrid̲j̲ , years 599, 603, 606, 618, 62…

K̲h̲iṭaṭ

(353 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), pl. of k̲h̲iṭṭa , the various quarters of the newly-founded early Islamic towns which the Arab-Islamic chiefs laid out (root k̲h̲.ṭ.t ) for the population groups which they attracted thither or for their respective leaders. Historical-administrative concerns led fairly quickly to the appearance of a literary genre which consisted of a description of the historical topography of these k̲h̲iṭaṭ . This happened in regards to Bag̲h̲dād, and one finds chapters of this nature in the “geographical” works of Ibn al-Faḳīh al-Hamad̲h̲ān…

Āḳ Sunḳur al-Bursuḳī

(421 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( abū saʿīd sayf al-dīn ḳasīm al-dawla ), originally a mamlūk of Bursuḳ [ q.v.], and one of the principal officers of the Sald̲j̲uḳid sultans Muḥammad and Maḥmūd. He became prominent firstly through his activities as military governor ( s̲h̲iḥna ) of al-ʿIrāḳ, and later, at the end of his life, as governor of Mosul, which office he held simultaneously with the former. Appointed s̲h̲iḥna in 498/1105. his main task was to oppose the Mazyadite Arabs of Dubays [ q.v.], who were infesting the environs of Bag̲h̲dād. In his first government of Mosul (507/1113) his chief duty was …

Ibn Muyassar

(485 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(not Mīsar) Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf . . . . b. D̲j̲alab Rāg̲h̲ib . 628-77/1231-78, Egyptian historian. He was descended, hence his by-name, from a Tunisian “imported” at the beginning of the 6th/12th century by an Egyptian amīr named Rāg̲h̲ib; under Saladin, the family, being excluded from the military career by the formation of the new army, had entered civilian life. Ibn Muyassar owed his name to a maternal ancestor who had apparently himself been ¶ an amīr under the Fāṭimids. His Annales d’Égypte (ed. H. Massé, Cairo 1919; cf. G. Wiet, in JA, 1921) have survived in a unique ma…

Begteginids

(879 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, an important seigneurial family which, though it never completely freed itself from the overlordship of its powerful neighbours, possessed for a century extensive lands in Upper Mesopotamia, partly in the east around Irbil and partly in the west, for a shorter period, around Ḥarrān. The founder of the family, Zayn al-Dīn ʿAlī Küčük b. Begtegin, was a Turcoman officer whose fortune was linked from the beginning with that of Zenki. Probably as a result of his participation in this prince’s campa…

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…

Mengüček

(349 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Mangūd̲j̲ak ), a Turkmen chief who was the eponym of a minor dynasty which appears in history with his son Isḥāḳ in 512/1118 in eastern Anatolia around the town of Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.], but including also Diwrigi and Kog̲h̲onia/Colonia-Ḳara Ḥiṣār S̲h̲arḳī. His territory accordingly lay between that of the Dānis̲h̲mendids [ q.v.] on the west, of the Saltuḳids [ q.v.] of Erzerum on the east, of the Byzantine province of Trebizond on the north and of the Artuḳid principalities [see artuḳids ] on the south; it thus commanded the traditional highway for inva…

Atabak

(1,932 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(atabeg), title of a high dignitary under the Sald̲j̲ūḳids and their successors. The term is Turkish and first makes its appearance in Muslim history with the Sald̲j̲ūḳids; it is therefore reasonable to enquire whether any precedents exist in the Turkish societies of Central Asia. So far no occurrence of the actual word seems to have been reported and the fact that in the Ork̲h̲on civilisation there is apparently a person called ata , father, acting as a tutor to a young prince, is too vague to enable one to affirm a connexion; the same is true…

Mafṣūl

(57 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), a term used to denote certain juridical categories of landed estates in Syria in the time of the Mamlūks. The word has no connection with the Arabic root f.-ṣ.-l ., but is derived, according to al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , viii, 256, “from the Frankish” vassal . (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cl. Cahen, in JESHO, xviii (1975), 238.

Ild̲j̲āʾ

(89 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
or Tald̲j̲iʾa , a method of protection by a superior of his inferiors, on which see the articles ḍayʿa and ḥimāya , adding to the bibliography Y. Linant de Bellefonds, Volonté interne et volonté déclarée en droit musulman, in Revue Intern , de Droit Comparé , x (1958), 513 ( tald̲j̲iʾa occurring in law as a fictitious sale with the object of gaining protection against confiscation, taxes, etc.; but the question arises of how the property is to be regained once the danger is over). (Cl. Cahen)

Ḳabāla

(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…

Dīnār

(262 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Malik ), name of one of the Og̲h̲uz chieftains who set themselves up at K̲h̲urāsān after the dislocation of the kingdom of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar; unable to maintain his position there before the pressure of the K̲h̲wārizmian state, he found a way to profit from the dissensions among the Sald̲j̲ūḳids of Kirmān to lay hands on that principality (582/1186) and to hold it, in spite of hostilities on the borders of Sistān, Fārs, and the Persian Gulf, until his death in 591/1195. After his death, however, Kirmān in its turn became absorbed within the K̲h̲wārizmian empire, on account of in…

Kasb

(3,905 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | L. Gardet
(A.), in economic life, gain. As is well known, in its main trends Islam is not a doctrine of renunciation of the world, but one of respect for the commandments of God according to the uses of the world, which He has given to man for his benefit. There is therefore no objection whatsoever to a man’s realising, as long as it is by legal means, the gain necessary to improve his life and that of his dependents. The Prophet was born into a society of merchants, to whom he often spoke in their own la…

Artuḳids

(4,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, (not urṭukids ), a Turkish dynasty which reigned over the, whole or part of Diyār Bakr, either independently or under Mongol protectorate, from the end of the 5th/11th to the beginning of the 9th/15th century. Artuḳ, son of Ekseb, belonged to the Turkoman tribe Döger [ q.v.]. In 1073 he was in Asia Minor, operating for and against the Byzantine Emperor ¶ ¶ Michael VII, but he later appears principally as an officer in the service of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ Maliks̲h̲āh. In 1077 he brought the Carmathians of Baḥrayn under the rule of Maliks̲h̲āh; in 1079 Maliks̲…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(966 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baysānī al-ʿAsḳalānī , Mūḥyī ( Mud̲j̲īr ) al-Dīn , the famous counsellor and secretary to Saladin, was born on 15 D̲j̲umādā II 529/3 April 1135 at ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.], where his father, a native of Baysān, known as al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was the judge. He was put by his father into the Dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Cairo as a trainee, about 543-4/1148-9. Already before 548/1153 he entered the service of the ḳāḍī of Alexandria, Ibn Ḥadīd, as a secretary. As the elegant reports he drafted there bro…

Barkyārūḳ

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(berkyaruk), fourth Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sulṭān, in whose time the visible decline of the regime began. Although the eldest of the sons of Maliks̲h̲āh, he was only thirteen years old on the latter’s death (S̲h̲awwāl 485/November 1092) and, unlike his father, who at a similar age had been guided by his vizier and atabeg Niẓām al-Mulk, he lacked a man of undisputed authority in his entourage. Moreover, Maliks̲h̲āh’s last wife, Turkān Ḵh̲ātūn, a woman also of the noblest birth, had dominated her husband in the lat…

Luʾluʾ

(418 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Badr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil al-Malik al-Raḥīm , a freedman, possibly black, of the last Zangids of Mosul, whose régime he prolonged. Designated by Arslān S̲h̲āh I on his death in 607/1210-1 as regent of the principality for his young son al-Ḳāhir, then by the latter (d. 615/1218) for his infant son, Arslān S̲h̲āh II, he was officially designated, with a caliphal diploma, as lord in 629/1232. The chronicles mention him especially for his interminable minor clashes with the lesser …

Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ

(720 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the son, probably the elder son, of the ancestor and eponym of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasties, Sald̲j̲ūḳ. His history is merged in that of the first contacts between the Og̲h̲uz led by his family and the Muslim states of Central Asia. His personal name was Isrāʾīl (cf. his brothers Mīk̲h̲āʾīl and Mūsā, fore-names in which it is possible to see Jewish Ḵh̲azar or Nestorian Central-Asian influence), with Arslan as a totemic name (cf. his famous nephews Ṭug̲h̲ril Muḥammad and Čag̲h̲rī Dāʾūd). The begin…

K̲h̲usraw Fīrūz

(249 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of the last Būyid ruler, better known by his laḳab of al-Malik al-Raḥīm. He succeeded his father Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār in ʿIrāḳ in 440/1048. Most of his reign was spent in disputing with his brother Fulād̲h̲ Sūtūn the possession of Fārs and K̲h̲ūzistān and in trying to maintain discipline amongst the Turkish troops of his general al-Basāsīrī [ q.v.]. There is no discernible doctrinal reason for his adoption, in defiance cf the caliph, of an epithet reserved for God. In any case, the enfeeblement of the Būyid dynasty allowed the caliph in question, al-Ḳā…
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