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Ibn al-Muslima

(891 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, by-name first given to Aḥmad b. ʿUmar (d. 415/1024), of the family of the Āl al-Raḳil, and name by which his descendants were known until the 6th/12th century. The most important member of the family was his grandson, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn, known also by the honorific title of raʾīs al-ruʾasāʾ , vizier to the caliphate from 437 to 450/1045-58, concerning whom there have arisen a number of important questions which have not yet been satisfactorily answered. The conquest of Bag̲h̲dād by the Būyids in 334/945 had led …

Būz-Abeh

(358 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, governor of Fārs under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Būz-Abeh was one of the amīr s of Mengubars, the governor of Fārs, for whom he administered the province of Ḵh̲ūzistān. He was also in the army of his superior when the latter, accompanied by other amīrs, moved against the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Masʿūd and was made prisoner at the battle of Kurs̲h̲anba (other sources call the scene of the encounter Pand̲j̲ Angus̲h̲t), later being put to death, in 532/1137-38. Since, after their victory, the sultan’s troops began to plunder the enemy camp, Būz-Abeh attacked and dispersed them. Several prominent amīrs of th…

Buwayhids or Būyids

(7,567 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the most important of the dynasties which, first in the Iranian plateau then in ʿIrāḳ, side by side with the Sāmānids of Ḵh̲urāsān and of Māwarāʾ al-Nahr, marked the “Iranian intermezzo” (Minorsky) between the Arab domination of early Islam and the Turkish conquest of the 5th/11th century. Its name derives from Buwayh or Būyeh, the father of three brothers who founded it, ʿAlī, al-Ḥasan, and the youngest, Aḥmad. Condottieri of humble birth, they belonged to the population of the Daylamites [ q.v.] who, newly won over to (S̲h̲iʿī) Islam, were at that time enlisting in large …

Ibn al-Ḳalānisī

(384 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. Asad ... al-Tamīmī ( ca. 465-555/1073-1160), a member of an important family of Damascus, who for a time was raʾīs of that town, and above all was its historian for the period extending from the middle of the 4th/10th century to 555/1160. The History of Ibn al-Ḳalānisī, known simply by the title D̲h̲ayl tāʾrīk̲h̲ Dimas̲h̲ḳ , consists of two parts, the limits being somewhat imprecise. The first part, the opening pages of which are lost, and which goes down approximately to the time of the author’s youth, is based…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan IV

(335 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, better known by his laḳab of Rukn al-Dīn, one of the sons and successors of K̲h̲usraw II (1246). It was at the beginning of the period of the Mongol protectorate that, the three sons of the late sovereign all being minors, the senior amirs, in order to safeguard the unity of the state, sought to install, under their own executive power, a sultanate shared jointly between the three young princes; Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan was sent on a mission to the Mongol chief Batu to persuade him to accept this solution. This very mission alone established a…

D̲h̲imma

(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …

Atsi̊̊z b. Uvak

(541 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(and not Abak), was one of the chiefs of the Turkomāns (perhaps of the tribe of the Īwāī and perhaps at the beginning of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid expansion established in Ḵh̲wārizm), who in 1070 had followed Erisgen (?), husband of a daughter of Alp-Arslan, into Asia Minor in his flight to Byzantine territory; but he refused to take service in the Christian army, and had responded to the appeal made to him by the Fāṭimid government, requesting him to come and bring some of the Palestine Bedouin to heel (…

Ḳaṭiʿ̊ʿa

(75 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, pl. ḳaṭāʾīʿ , a Muslim administrative term designating, on the one hand, those concessions made to private individuals on state lands in the first centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra (see ḍayʿa ), and, on the other hand, the fixed sum of a tax or tribute, in contradistinction to taxation by proportional method or some variable means. The verb ḳaṭaʿa is also used to mean “to impose”, normally followed by ḳaṭīʿatan . (C. Cahen)

Diyār Rabīʿa

(956 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the most eastern and the largest province of the D̲j̲azīra. It includes three regions: that of the K̲h̲ābūr and its tributary the Hirmās (D̲j̲ag̲h̲d̲j̲ag̲h̲) and their sources, i.e., the slopes of the Ṭūr ʿAbdīn; that which is contained between the Hirmās and the Tigris, the former Bēt̲h̲ ʿArabāyē with the D̲j̲abal Sind̲j̲ār; and that on both banks of the Tigris between Tell Fāfān and Takrīt, which marks the boundary with ʿIrāḳ. The lower reaches of the two Zābs are also include…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II

(637 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, son and successor of Masʿūd I, and one of the most important sultans of Rūm (1155-92). Masʿūd had, in dealing with the Greeks, succeeded in restoring the position of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in relation to the Dānis̲h̲mendids who were divided by quarrels over the succession. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan at first maintained this policy, and carried it to the extent of offering the Basileus Manuel Comnenus at Constantinople in 1162 a form of allegiance which, in concrete terms, cost him nothing. He was then able to make himself mast…

Čās̲h̲na-Gīr

(135 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, in Persian, ‘taster’, title of an official, generally an amīr , at the court of the Muslim sovereigns (including the Mamlūks) from the time of the Sald̲j̲ūkids. It is not always clear in what way he is connected with the overseer of the food, k̲h̲ w ānsalār ; perhaps the two are often confused. The title does not appear to be found, even in Iran, under previous dynasties, although caliphs and princes did undoubtedly have overseers for their food, and even had it tasted before they eat, as the dishes were always suspected of being poisoned. The term čās̲h̲na-gīr is also…

Futuwwa

(9,840 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Fr. Taeschner
, a term invented in about the 2nd/8th century as the counterpart of muruwwa [ q.v.], the qualities of the mature man, to signify that which is regarded as characteristic of the fatā , pl. fityān , literally “young man”; by this term it has become customary to denote various movements and organizations which until the beginning of the modern era were wide-spread throughout all the urban communities of the Muslim East. The study of these movements is made difficult by the fact that, in the course of history, t…

ʿArrāda

(245 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a mediaeval artillery engine. In general, from Europe to China, there were everywhere in existence two main types of engines of projection which were operated by more than one man. In the case of the one, the heavy type of engine, the projectile was hurled from a great distance by virtue of the centrifugal force produced by the rocking of a great arm: these were the mand̲j̲anīḳ or mangonels; in the case of the other, a lighter engine, the projectile was discharged by the impact of a shaft forcibly impelled by the release of a rope: these were the ʿarrāda . The principle of the ʿarrāda only differs…

Bayt al-Māl

(8,636 words)

Author(s): Coulson, N.J. | Cahen, Cl. | Lewis, B. | R. le tourneau
, in its concrete meaning “the House of wealth”, but particularly, in an abstract sense, the “fiscus” or “treasury” of the Muslim State. I. The Legal Doctrine. ‘Bilāl and his companions asked ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb to distribute the booty acquired in Iraq and Syria. “Divide the lands among those who conquered them”, they said, “just as the spoils of the army are divided”. But ʿUmar refused their request . . . saying: “Allāh has given a share in these lands to those who shall come after you” ’ ( Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ , 24. Le Livre de l’Impot Foncier , 37). In this alleged d…

Bursuḳ

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Eastern Turkish = “badger”), one of the chief officers of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs, whose descendants also played a notable rôle at the beginning of the 6th/12th century. Bursuḳ, ¶ although youthful, entered history as one of the principal amīrs in the service of Ṭug̲h̲ril-Beg, who after restoring control in Bag̲h̲dād following the tragedies of the years 450-51/1058-59, made Bursuḳ his first s̲h̲iḥna (military commander) in Bag̲h̲dād. However, under the pacified Sald̲j̲ūḳid organisation, the essential power belonged to the ʿamīd , the civil administrator…

Ḳānūn

(6,513 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Ed.
, pl. ḳawānīn , Arabic derivative from Greek κανών, which meant firstly “any straight rod”, later “a measure or rule”, and finally (in the papyri of the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.) “assessment for taxation”, “imperial taxes”, “tariff” (Liddell and Scott, revised ed., London 1940; for its meanings in religious literature, see G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek lexicon , Oxford 1961). The word was adopted into Arabic presumably with the continuation, after the Muslim conquest of Egypt and Syria, of the pre-Islamic tax system (C. H. Becker, Islamstudien , Leipzig 1924, 218-62; F. Løkkegaard, I…

ʿAmīd

(359 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ar.), title of high officials of the Sāmānid-G̲h̲aznawid administration, which the Sald̲j̲ūḳids, the inheritors of their institutions and personnel, extended throughout their empire. The word, properly speaking, does not denote a function, but the rank of the class of officials from whom the civil governors, ʿāmil (as opposed to the military governors, sallār , s̲h̲iḥna ), were recruited; thus Sibṭ Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī, Mirʾāt al-Zamān , MS Paris 1503, 193v: "one of the ʿumadā " is appointed governor; the same author, supplemented by Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, …

Alp Takīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Cahen, Cl.
(alp tigin), the founder of the G̲h̲aznawid power. Like the majority of the praetorians of his time, he was a Turkish slave, purchased and enrolled in the Sāmānid body guard, who progressively rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb (commander-in-chief of the guard). In this capacity he wielded the real power during the reign of the young Sāmānid ʿAbd al-Malik I; the vizier Abū ʿAlī al-Balʿamī owed his appointment to him, and did not dare to take any action "without the knowledge and advice" of Alp Takīn. …

ʿArīf

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el- | Cahen, Cl.
, "one who knows", a term applied to the holders of certain military or civil offices, based on competence in customary matters, ʿurf , as opposed to knowledge of the law, which characterizes the ʿālim . There may have existed in some cases de facto ʿurafāʾ in Arabia already prior to and at the time of Muḥammad (al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Umm , iv, 81) who is said to have condemned them (Ibn Ḥanbal, iv, 133; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , iii, 86; al-Sarak̲h̲sī, S̲h̲arḥ al-Siyar al-Kabīr , i, 98; al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Kabīr , ii, 341). But such traditions are obviously influenced by later conditions. Duri…

Itāwa

(64 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(from atā , apparently a doublet of ʿaṭā ) literally “gift”, a general term met with, especially in pre- and proto-Islamic times, meaning a vague tribu te or lump payment madt, for example, to or by a tribe or other group; later the words describes, sometimes in a denigrating way, a tip or bribe. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography F. Løkkegaard, Islamic Taxation, index, s.v.
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