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Taylor, Jeremy

(269 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug, 15, 1613, Cambridge, UK – Aug 13, 1667, Lisburn, Ireland). The son of a local barber, Taylor studied at Caius College, Cambridge, before becoming a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford (1636). He was then appointed chaplain to archbishop W. Laud and, somewhat later, to Charles I; in 1638 he became rector of Uppingham, Rutland. He was awarded a doctorate for his work, The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy (1642). While serving as royal chaplain during the Civil War, he was captured and imprisoned. After his release, he lived quietly in secl…

Neale, John Mason

(178 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1818, London – Aug 6, 1866, East Grinstead, West Sussex), Anglican author and hymn writer. Having been influenced by the Catholic revival (High Church movement [I]), at Cambridge he helped found the Camden Society. Though ordained in 1841, ill-health prevented his installation into a parish. From 1846 on he served as warden of Sackville College, Sussex. Here, he divided his time between writing and the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which (in 1855) he founded to educate girl…

Sherlock, Thomas

(156 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1678, London – Jul 18, 1761, London), Anglican bishop. Sherlock served as Fellow and Master of St. Catherine’s College, Cambridge, and (in succession to his father) as Master of the Temple in London where he gained a wide reputation for his preaching. A Tory representative of the High Church movement, he led the opposition to bishop Benjamin Hoadly during the famous Bangorian Controversy (1717) and fell out of favor at Court. After the death of George I his fortunes changed and h…

Scripture Union

(159 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1867, Josiah Spiers established informal religious services for children in Islington, London. These soon became known as the “Children’s Special Service Mission” (CSSM). During the following year, Spiers wrote “God is Love” in the sand at the beach in Llandudno, North Wales, and encouraged children to decorate the letters with shells and seaweed. He then told them stories about Jesus. This would prove to be the first of many CSSM beach services. In 1879, the CSSM was asked to …

James I

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (Stuart, of England; Jun 19, 1566, Edinburgh – Mar 27, 1625, London). In 1603, on the death of Elizabeth I, James VI of Scotland was crowned King James I of England. Opposed to Presbyterianism and the Church of Scotland 's political influence he attempted to impose episcopacy in Scotland. In England, James's ecclesiastical policies met with mixed success. At the Hampton Court Conference (1604) he exhibited considerable theological knowledge and authorized a new translation of the …

Ritualismus

(615 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Martin | Carter, Grayson
[English Version] I. Ethisch Der Begriff »R.« bez. die ohne innere Überzeugung vollzogene Teilnahme an den Ritualen (Ritus/Ritual) einer Gemeinschaft oder Rel. In diesem Sinne wird er etwa in der Soziologie, der Ethnologie oder der Religionswiss. verwendet. Der Ausdruck »R.« scheint schon durch seine sprachliche Form die ethische Beurteilung des durch ihn bez. Phänomens bündig zu formulieren: Er gehört in die Klasse der pejorisierenden Substantive (vgl. z.B. Dogmatismus, Fundamentalismus). Freilich ist die negative Bewertung der als »R.« klassifizierten Phänomen…

Jacobitism

(208 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] Defined broadly, Jacobitism is a tradition or movement in Great Britain, whose adherents after 1688 supported the hereditary claims of the Roman Catholic Stuart dynasty over the parliamentary title of the Protestant William of Orange (and his Hanoverian successors). Apart from its military and diplomatic dimensions, exemplified in the invasion attempt of 1715 and 1745, Jacobitism also had important intellectual, social, literary, philosophical, nationalistic, and theological dimensions. Not all Jacobites were Roman Cath-¶ olic: many High Church (High C…

Jewel, John

(191 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (May 24, 1522, Buden, Devon – Sep 23, 1571, Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire). At Oxford, Jewel, who was influenced by Peter Martyr Vermigli, became one of the intellectual leaders of the English Reformation. Upon the succession of Mary Tudor in 1553, he fled to the continent. At Frankfurt he opposed J. Knox and defended the Book of Common Prayer of 1552. Later he and Vermigli traveled together to Zürich. Upon the accession of Elizabeth I (1558) he returned to England. In 1560 Jewel was appointed bishop of Salisbury, where he exercised a vig…

Ritualism

(621 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Martin | Carter, Grayson
[German Version] I. Ethics The term ritualism denotes participation in the rituals (Rite and ritual) of a community or religion without inner conviction. It is used in this sense in sociology, ethnology, and religious studies. The outward form of the word itself, a pejorative noun (like dogmatism and fundamentalism), appears to formulate succinctly the ethical assessment of the phenomenon it denotes. The negative assessment of the phenomena classified as “ritualism” is burdened with at least two problems: (1) it is hardly possible to assess with reasonabl…

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Chapel of Ease

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Tiling, Peter v.
[German Version] I. History – II. Legal Status of Daughter Parishes I. History In the Western church, from the 12th century on separate chapels were established for preaching and administration of the sacraments. They were meant for those who lived in villages far from the parish church or those who could not (afford to) rent a pew. They were also an effective means of extending the church's outreach where it was difficult (or impossible) to establish new parishes. Often found in …

Westminster

(449 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] I. Römisch-katholisches Erzbistum Nach der Reformation in England hatte die röm.-kath. Minderheit unter zahlreichen verfassungsmäßigen und sozialen Benachteiligungen zu leiden. Auch nach der Gleichstellung der Katholiken 1829 blieben antikath. Vorurteile zurück. Seit den 80er Jahren des 17.Jh. nahmen vier Bischöfe, die als Apostolische Vikare dienten, kath. Interessen in England wahr; 1840 kamen vier weitere hinzu. Diverse Faktoren, zumal der Zustrom irischer Einwanderer, das Aufko…

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…
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