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(3,097 words)

Author(s): Stroumsa, Guy G. | Casadio, Giovanni | Zenkert, Georg | Dierken, Jörg
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Philosophy – IV. Philosophy of Religion and Dogmatics I. Religious Studies Thomas Hyde seems to have coined the term dualism, which he used in his Historia religionis veterum Persarum (Oxford 1700) to describe the essential theological objectives of Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra/Zoroastrianism). The term comes into Western European languages between the mid-18th and the mid-19th century. It refers to a doctrine that postulates the existence of two fundamental causal principles that oppose one another. From its f…

Marcus the Magician

(1,219 words)

Author(s): Casadio, Giovanni
Marcus the Magician, 2nd century Marcus the Magician was a Gnostic [→ Gnosticism] and a disciple of → Valentinus who claimed a right to correct his teacher. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but his floruit can conceivably be located between 160 and 180 AD. Probably he was a native of Asia Minor, an ancient centre of diffusion of Christianity, in particular of Gnostic Christianity, and he presumably carried out his propaganda missions in the Rhone valley. A presence of Marcosians – his di…