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(977 words)

Author(s): Clayton, Philip | Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] I. Terminology; Natural Science – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Terminology; Natural Science The term panentheism originated as a theological concept, but it is also used in the natural sciences. It expresses the view that the world exists in God, even though God is more than the world (Transcendence and immanence: I; see also II and III below). The major arguments for panentheism from the perspective of the natural sciences include the standard arguments for classical philosophical theism (Natural theology). Panentheists a…


(916 words)

Author(s): Clayton, Philip | Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff und naturwissenschaftlich P. ist ein urspr. theol. Begriff, der jedoch auch in naturwiss. Kontexten verwandt wird. Er ist Ausdruck der Ansicht, daß die Welt im Göttlichen existiert, auch wenn Gott mehr ist als die Welt (Transzendenz/Immanenz: I.; s.u. II.; III.). – Hauptargumente aus naturwiss. Sicht für einen P. sind u.a. die Standardargumente zugunsten des klassischen philos. Theismus (natürliche Theologie). Außerdem suchen Panentheisten nach Anzeichen für ein intern…

Determinism and Indeterminism

(3,196 words)

Author(s): Drees, Willem B. | Rudolph, Ulrich | Clayton, Philip
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Systematic Theology – III. Islamic Theology – IV. Philosophy of Science – V. Physics I. Fundamental Theology Determinism is the thesis that given a particular state of affairs (e.g. “the world now”) another state cannot be other than it is or will be (e.g. “the world tomorrow”). Fatalism is a slightly different idea, namely that an aspect of reality is unavoidable (e.g. one's own death…


(3,560 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Clayton, Philip | Stolzenberg, Jürgen | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Since time immemorial, the use of the term spirit has been influenced by Christian usage, especially by the concept of the Holy Spirit, including connotations of Latin spiritus and Greek πνεύμα/ pneúma. Spirit has a wide range of meaning; it can denote both a spiritual and a mental attitude, dynamic, or quality ascribed to an individual and a projection of such phenomena into the external world. An anthropomorphic concretion of such projections can then refer to “beings” that in earlier times might have been called “trolls” or the like. 2. In religi…