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Lycophron

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Λυκόφρων; Lykóphrōn). [German version] [1] Younger son of Periander of Corinth The younger son of Periander of Corinth and Melissa, daughter of Procles of Epidaurus. In the war between Periander and his father-in-law, L. is sent to Cercyra and murdered there by the Cercyraeans, who presumably considered him a tyrant and successor of Periander. Legend-building in an early phase can be seen in Herodotus (3,50-53; cf. Diog. Laert. 1,94f.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 60). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Founder of the tyrannis in Pherai, c. 404/390 BC Founder of the t…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Myrsilus

(356 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρσιλος; Mýrsilos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Mytilene, c. end of the 7th cent. BC Pilloried as the ‘tyrant of Mytilene in the fragments of the lyric poet Alcaeus [4] (oldest documentary evidence for the word monarchía ), M. is therefore ranked by Strabo alongside Melanchrus and Pittacus (Str. 13,2,3). His name points to Lydia (Hdt. 1,7 and he was possibly part of the Cleanactid family (schol. to Alcaeus 112,23 Lobel-Page = Voigt). After Melanchrus' overthrow he became a tyrant and survived a conspiracy…

Plutarchus

(7,856 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pelling, C. B. R. (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Πλούταρχος/ Ploútarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1]. As the guest-friend of Meidias [2], the rich opponent of Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 21,110; 21,200), he turned to Athens for help in 349 BC when the exiled Cleitarchus [1] and Callias [9] of Chalcis, supported by Phalaecus of Phocis and Philippus [4] II, threatened his position (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with schol.). Phocion led the inglorious and expensive expedition in early 348 BC (Dem. Or. 5,5 with schol.; …

Megisto

(84 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Μεγιστώ/ Megistṓ). Wife of one Timoleon. In Plutarchus' ‘Bravery of Women (which was probably inspired by Phylarchos' ‘tragic’ school of historiography) she is a moral example and the leader of the women's resistance against Aristotimus, the tyrant of Elis for six months in 271/270 BC (Plut. Mor. 252b-e). After the tyrannicide, hers is the sole heroic voice raised on behalf of the tyrant's young daughters who are now at the mercy of the furious mob (Plut. Mor. 253c-e). Cobet, Justus (Essen)

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Hippoclus

(111 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Ἵπποκλος; Híppoklos). H., (probably the first) tyrant of Lampsacus, was supported by the Persians and took part in the Scythian campaign of  Darius [1] I c. 513 BC (Hdt. 4,138).  Hippias [1] of Athens concluded a marriage alliance with him through the marriage of his daughter Archedice with H.' son and successor Aeantides, which at the same time meant a move in the direction of the Persians (Thuc. 6,59) and possibly was a reason for Sparta's intervention in Athens in 511/510 BC [1. 301].  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 D. M. Lewis, in: CAH 4, 21988. H. Be…

Theomestor

(108 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Θεομήστωρ; Theomēstōr). Son of Androdamas from Samos, as a triḗrarchos in the Persian navy at the battle of Salamis [1] in 480 BC he sank Greek ships and was therefore installed as tyrant in Samos after Aeaces [2] (Hdt. 8,85). Without his knowledge the Samians negotiated with the Greek navy (Hdt. 9,90; cf. 9,103). When the Greeks assembled in Samos after their victory at Mycale in 479 (Hdt. 9,106), there is no further mention of T. Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 115 f.; 588  L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996,…

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Nicocles

(477 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Νικοκλῆς; Nikoklês). [German version] [1] King of Salamis on Cyprus, from 374/373 B.C. King of Salamis on Cyprus, son and, from 374/373 BC, successor of Euagoras [1] I. (Diod. Sic. 15,47,8). N. died, probably together with Strato of Sidon, in the so-called Uprising of the Satraps, the main phase of which took place c. 362-360 B.C. Although N. continued the philhellenic policies of his father (Philhellenism), Hellenistic forms of sovereignty and way of life already announced themselves in N., since Isocrates…

Cleitarchus

(457 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κλείταρχος; Kleítarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria 343/42-341 BC Tyrant of Eretria. Even as a banned exile C. unsuccessfully attempted in 349/8 BC to seize Eretria, e.g., with the help of Philip II against an Athenian army under Phocion (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with Schol. [1. 318, n. 2]). Philip's intervention in Euboea in 343 and 342 [1. 502f., 545-549] brought C. to power (Dem. Or. 8,36; 9,57f.; 18,71; 19,87). Phocion expelled him in 341 (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 160; Diod. Sic. 16,74,1).  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, G. T. Griffith,…

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…

Troy

(10,863 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pistorius, Kerstin
Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Cobet, Justus (Essen) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Homer sets his tale of the wrath of Achilles and the battle for Troy (T.) in a memorial landscape whose reality was entirely due to the epic and the history of its reception. Troy was placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998, 130 years after Heinrich Schliemann first appeared on the site (fig. 1). Whoever "henceforth" sails the Hellespont by ship will gaze at the funeral mounds of the heroes, visible from afar, as we read in the Iliad (7,85-91 with reference to Ajax) and the Ody…

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Simus

(185 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Σῖμος/ Sîmos). [German version] [1] Ruler in Larisa, 4th cent. BC Representative of a group of Aleuadae, ruler in Larisa [3] (Aristot. Pol. 1306a 26-30) about 358-344 BC; his name appears on coins of the city (HN p. 299). He gained his position from being a mediator (ἄρχων μεσίδιος/ árchōn mesídios, 'mediator plenipotentiary') in the oligarchic conflict, an example for Aristotle (contra [1. 503; 2. 295, 672; 3. 196; 4. 364-366]). The cruelty of his reaction to the killing of his brother was proverbial (Aristot. fr. 166 R.; Callim. fr. 588; sch…

Peitholaus

(163 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Πειθόλαος; Peithólaos). Third son of Iason [2] of Pherae. P. was involved in the murder of his brother-in-law Alexander [15] in 358 BC - this may have been the situation in which Isocrates's Epist. 6 to the sons of Iason was written - and in the tyrannies of the brothers Teisiphonus (358-355) and Lycophron [3] (355-352). He retreated with the latter after surrendering Pherae to Philippus [4] II of Macedon in 352 (Diod. Sic. 16,37,3); the two then supported Sparta in the Peloponnes…

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Syloson

(185 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Συλοσῶν/ Sylosôn). Younger brother of Polycrates [1] of Samos. With the latter he achieved tyrannis in about 540 BC, but was then expelled (Hdt. 3,39). Egypt c. 525 BC is the scene of an anecdote that made him the 'benefactor' ( euergétēs) of Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,139 f.). After the latter came to power in 522, S. won him over to making him the successor of Polycrates [1], who had been killed in the meantime. An army under Otanes [1] marched against Maeandrius [1], the tyrant ruling in Samos, (Hdt. 3,140-149) whose underha…

Tyrannis, Tyrannos

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(τυραννίς/ tyrannís, Archaic Gk. also τυραννίη/ tyranníē; τύραννος/ týrannos; Latin tyrannus). [German version] I. Term; alterations in meaning Tyrannos (non-Greek loan-word, perhaps from Lydian tūran/'lord') is first attested around the mid-7th cent. as the term denoting the Lydian king Gyges [1] (Archil. 22,3 Diehl; fr. 19 West). Greek Archaic poetry used tyrannis synonymously with monarchía , but tyrannos was never used in self-presentation or as a title, but was used by aristocrats to attack a peer. This is exemplified in the polemic of Alcaeus[4]…
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