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Ibn Zaidūn

(749 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ālib b. Zaidūn, one of the most celebrated poets of Muslim Spain and minister to the Arab Emīrs of Seville. He belonged to a famous family of the Arab ¶ tribe of Mak̲h̲zūm and was born at Cordóva in 394 = 1003. Left early an orphan, he was given the best teachers by his guardians and soon distinguished himself among his fellow pupils. At the age of twenty he already composed poems which made him famous. Our. poet became involved in the politics of his country through the civil wars of the Omayyad pretenders and the attempts of th…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the name of four ʿAbdalwādide or Zaiyānide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān I Muḥammed b. Abī Saʿīd ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan b. Zaiyān, the third sovereign of the Zaiyānide dynasty, was proclaimed king at Tlemcen, on the death of his father, the 2d Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 703 (6th June 1304), during the long siege of that town by the Marīnide sultan Abū Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr. The siege was kept on since the 3d S̲h̲aʿbān 698 (6th May 1299), and was not to be finished before the 7th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 706 (10th May 1307) when Abū Yaʿḳūb was assassinated by one of his eunuchs. The Marīnide sultan had founded, with the objec…


(4,029 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(plural of the ethnic Derḳāwī) a name collectively applied to the members of the Ṭarīḳa or Muḥammadan religious brotherhood, composed of the followers of Mūlāy ’l-ʿArbī al-Derḳāwī, the area of whose influence extends over Northwest Africa, particularly Morocco and Algeria. An individual member is called Derḳāwī while the plural is Derḳāwā. They are also called S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya-Derḳāwā, their brotherhood being an offshoot of the much older Ṭarīḳa of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya, founded by the Mag̲h̲ribī Ṣūfī Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. Origin of the Derḳāwā; The doctrine of th…


(760 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
— This title given to the founder of a religious brotherhood is also borne by his successors at the head of the hierarchy of the order and also by the heads of the various branches. The s̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ṭarīḳa, at once the spiritual and the temporal director of his group, must possess all moral qualities: he ought to be high-souled, austere, endowed with all the virtues, he must also possess all knowledge. Favoured by God who has endowed him with baraka (grace), he is the intermediary between the divinity and man. He has a perfect knowledge of the divine law or s̲h̲arīʿa [q. v.]; he knows the wic…


(951 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Couscous), a dish prepared with semolina. Throughout northwest Africa (Tripolitania, Sahara,Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) it is the basis of the food of the people. It is sometimes called ṭaʿām i. e. food par excellence. The Beduins of Eastern Algeria also call it naʿama, which has the same meaning; those of Western Algeria, maʿās̲h̲; those of the South and of the Sahara, ʿais̲h̲, also with the same sense. In Tunisia, the name ṭaʿām has even become applied to feasts at which this dish is particularly used, feasts known elsewhere as zarda (Eastern Algeria), waʿada (Western Algeria) and mu…


(173 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plur. Ḥusainīyūn, a name borne by those s̲h̲erīfs of Morocco who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet. Unlike the Ḥasanī [q. v.] the Ḥusainī came at a relatively late date to Morocco, where they in numbers at any rate never attained the importance of their cousins. They form two main groups, the Ṣaḳalīyūn and the ʿIrāḳīyūn. The Ṣaḳalīyūn (i.e. these who came from Sicily) were driven from their original home by the Norman conquest. They fled first to Spain and thence to Morocco in the reign of the Marīnid Sulṭ…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,383 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammed, the name of five Marīnide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān Muḥammed, son of the Marīnide sultan Abū ʿInān Fāris. The latter, while seriously ill, had designated Abū Zaiyān for the succession to the throne, indicating him at the same time the vizier Mūsā b. ʿĪsa’l-Aṣūlī as his prime minister. The illness of the monarch was growing worse, and the vizier, in order to avoid the competition of pretenders, wanted to hasten his master’s accession to the throne. He, accordingly, spoke of it to the principal personages of the Marīnide Court, who recognized Abū Zaiyān as sovereign. But just the same p…


(588 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in the plural Ḥasanīyūn, a kind of patronymic, or nisba given to the ʿAlid [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs, descendants of al-Ḥasan son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad. Hasanī is used in opposition to Ḥusainī, the surname of the S̲h̲erīfs, who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain the second son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima. In Morocco, however, the surname Ḥasanī is particularly applied to the S̲h̲erīfs descended from Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakīya, to distinguish them ¶ from their cousins the Idrīsīds [q. v.]. These S̲h̲erīfs, formerly located particularly in the south of …


(2,365 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Dawāʾir) plural of Dāʾira “circle”, a confederacy of families whose duty it is to give personal attendance on a native chief. Before the French conquest of Algeria, the name Dwāʾir was borne more particularly by four groups of families or tribes, encamped in the southwest of Oran, attached to the service of this town and its Bey. They were organised as a militia on a sort of feudal basis, and lived on the produce of lands granted them by the Turkish government, and on the booty won in expeditions against unsubjected tribes…


(895 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb b. ʿAmr Abū ʿUbaid, the oldest Hispano-Arab geographer, whose works have survived to us, flourished in the second ¶ half of the vth = xith century. His family, belonging to the great tribe of Bakr, took a prominent place among the Arab families of the West of Muslim Spain. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb, Ḳāḍī of Niebla, the grandfather of our al-Bakrī, was governor of Saltes and Huelva in the Caliphate of the Omaiyad His̲h̲ām al-Muʾaiyid. On the fall of this dynasty and during the socalled Ṭawāʾif period of anarchy which followed, he tried like so ma…


(432 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(G̲h̲aʾiṭa, G̲h̲ēṭa), an Arab musical instrument, very popular in North Africa and some districts of Southern Europe, a kind of cylindrical bagpipe with a movable wooden mouthpiece ( ḳaṣba) and rather wide bell-mouth. The cylindrical portion has seven holes on the upper side. The first hole below the mouthpiece is called yka sāʿida, the second s̲h̲as̲h̲ka, the third band̲j̲ka, the fourth d̲j̲ahārka, the fifth sīka, the sixth dūka and the seventh yka. On the lower side about midway between the yka sāʿida and the s̲h̲as̲h̲ka is an eighth hole called heftakā. The names of these holes ar…


(983 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, an Arab tribe of Northwestern Morocco. Its name in literary Arabic Ḵh̲ulṭ has become Ḵh̲loṭ in the vulgar dialect by regular metathesis, but the primitive form of the word is found in the adjective Ḵh̲ulṭī fem. Ḵh̲ulṭīya. The Ḵh̲loṭ who came into North Africa with the Hilālī invasion in the fifth (eleventh) century formed a part of the group of mixed Arab elements, known as Ḏj̲us̲h̲am from the name of the ancestor of one of them. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn and other Muslim historians, the Ḵh̲loṭ were the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. In Little…


(622 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār al-S̲h̲arīf al-Zarwīlī, a celebrated mystic, founder of the Muslim religious brotherhood or ṭarīḳa [q. v.] known as the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya [q. v.], which has itself given rise to some fifteen other brotherhoods like the Wafāʾrīya, the ʿArūsīya, the Ḏj̲azūlīya, the Hafnawīya etc. etc. He was born, according to some, at G̲h̲emāra near Ceuta about 593 (1196/1197); others say he was born at S̲h̲ād̲h̲ila, a place near the Ḏj̲abal Ẓafrān in Tunisia from which he would take his nisba of al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. In any case the ethnic al-Zarwīlī …

ʿAbd Allāh

(839 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Abū Fāris) b. Aḥmed al-Manṣūr b. Muḥammed S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Mahdī, surnamed al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ bi-’llāh, governor of Marrākus̲h̲ (Morocco), was proclaimed sultan in this town on Friday, 28 Rabīʿ I 1012 (5 Sept. 1603), a few days after the death of his father and the proclamation of his brother Zaidān by the inhabitants of Fez. ¶ Immediately after he was proclaimed, the new sultan of Morocco was forced to fight against his brother, who contested the supreme authority. The ʿulamāʾ of Fez, having been won over to the party of Mawlā Zaidān, decided by a fetwā (judicial decision) that Abū Fāris ʿAbd …


(1,301 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. S̲h̲arīf, Mūlāy, Sulṭān of Morocco, second of the dynasty of ʿAlawī or Filālī S̲h̲arīfs, also called Ḥasanī [q; v. for the genealogy of these S̲h̲arīfs]. On the death of Sulṭān Mūlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mūlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Mekines and brother of the deceased sulṭān, was proclaimed sulṭān in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082 (Apr. 14, 1672), being then 26 years of age. But three rivals, his brother Mūlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his…


(868 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(in written Arabic Ḳawm), the form and pronunciation usual in the Arab lands of North Africa of the name given to the body of armed horsemen or of fighting men of a tribe. Its derivative gouma means “a levy of goum or troops” or “a bold raid, rebellion, or revolt”. The written Arabic form ḳawm is also found in the dialects of North Africa with the meaning of “people, nation, tribe” etc. (Beaussier, Diet, pract. arabe-français des dialectes parlés en Algérie et en Tunisie). It should, however, be noted that ḳawm in written Arabic may also mean “enemies” or a “body of men going out to plunder” (Dozy, Su…

ʿĪsawīya, ʿĪsāwa

(909 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Aīssaoua), a collective name from the singular ʿĪsāwī (cf. Marçais, Textes Arabes de Tanger, p. 397 sq.): a name given to the k̲h̲wān [q. v.] or members of the Moroccan religious brotherhood founded by Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā and derived from this last name. In spite of the fame of this brotherhood, the life of Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Fihrī and his origin are little known. The ethnic al-Fihrī suggests a Spanish Arab origin. He travelled a great deal in his youth and was initiated in the east into the ecstatic exercises of the religious orders of the ¶ Ḥaidarīya and the Saʿdīya. Returning to the …


(439 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
This word means one who bears the marks of old age, who is over fifty (cf. Lisān, iii. 509). It is applied to aged relatives; the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ is the patriarch of the tribe or family. In pre-Islāmic antiquity the title Saiyid, the chief of the tribe, was frequently given the epithet S̲h̲aik̲h̲ meaning full maturity in years and therefore of mental powers. The moral influence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s over the Beduins was considerable and the term came to mean chiefs having a long career behind them, the glorious veterans. In the history of the Muslim period, it has ¶ frequently the sense of supreme c…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…


(1,789 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Banū Saʿd), the name of the dynasty of S̲h̲arīfs in Morocco which in 1544 (951) replaced the Waṭṭāsid dynasty on the throne of Fās. From the beginning of the fifteenth century the expeditions of the Portuguese and Spanish against the Muslim lands in Spain or North Africa had raised to a great pitch the fanaticism of the Berbers and of the Arabs who reacted violently under the leadership of holy men, s̲h̲arīfs [q. v.] and marabouts [q. v.]. In a country organised according to tribes or divided into numerous little states of a feudal character, among peoples whose only lin…
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