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Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf , Abu ’l-Naṣr , the second ruler of the Moroccan dynasty of the ʿAlawids [see ʿalawīs and ḥasanī ]. On the death of sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Meknès [see miknās ] and brother of the deceased sultan, was proclaimed sultan in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 April 1672), being then 26 years of age. But Three rivals, his brother Mawlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his nephew Aḥmad b. Muḥriz…

Abū Zayyān III

(198 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Aḥmad b. Abī Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh , second last ʿAbd al-Wādid ruler of Tlemcen. Thanks to the support of the Turks of Algiers he seized the power and was proclaimed in 947/1540. The Spaniards of Oran who supported his brother Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad undertook an expedition against Tlemcen, which failed (949/1543). After a second, victorious expedition, the Spaniards made it possible for Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad to seize the power (30 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʾda 949/7 March 1543), but he was soon…


(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…


(552 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Arabic ḳawm ; French goum ), the usual form and pronunciation, in the Arab countries of North Africa, of the name given to a group of armed horsemen or fighting men from a tribe. The derivative gūma signifies “a levy of gūm s, troops, a plundering foray”, “sedition”, “revolt”. It was the Turks who, in the former Regencies of Algiers and Tunis, gave the gūms an official existence by making them the basis of their system of occupation of the country. All the tribes had been divided by them into mak̲h̲zen or auxiliaries, who were exempt from most taxes, and raʿiyya , who wer…


(673 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the classical form of the name of a tribe of northwestern Morocco pronounced K̲h̲loṭ (but ethnic, K̲h̲ulṭi). The K̲h̲loṭ came into North Africa with the invasions of the Banū Hilāl in the 5th/11th century, and formed part of the “mixed” Arab people known as the D̲j̲us̲h̲am; according to Ibn K̲h̲aldūn and other historians, the K̲h̲loṭ allegedly belonged to the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. The D̲j̲us̲h̲am spread throughout the central Mag̲h̲rib, settled there and took part in all the wars which desolated B…

Abū Zayyān I

(113 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan , third sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Proclaimed in Tlemcen on 2 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 703/6 June 1304, he succeeded in having the siege of his capital by the Marīnid troops raised. He then chastised the tribes in the eastern part of his kingdom who had supported the enemy; the Tūd̲j̲īn Berbers were forced to submit and pay tribute, the Arab tribes were severely treated and driven back into the desert. On his return to Tlemcen, he…

Ibn Zaidūn

(749 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ālib b. Zaidūn, one of the most celebrated poets of Muslim Spain and minister to the Arab Emīrs of Seville. He belonged to a famous family of the Arab ¶ tribe of Mak̲h̲zūm and was born at Cordóva in 394 = 1003. Left early an orphan, he was given the best teachers by his guardians and soon distinguished himself among his fellow pupils. At the age of twenty he already composed poems which made him famous. Our. poet became involved in the politics of his country through the civil wars of the Omayyad pretenders and the attempts of th…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the name of four ʿAbdalwādide or Zaiyānide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān I Muḥammed b. Abī Saʿīd ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan b. Zaiyān, the third sovereign of the Zaiyānide dynasty, was proclaimed king at Tlemcen, on the death of his father, the 2d Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 703 (6th June 1304), during the long siege of that town by the Marīnide sultan Abū Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr. The siege was kept on since the 3d S̲h̲aʿbān 698 (6th May 1299), and was not to be finished before the 7th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 706 (10th May 1307) when Abū Yaʿḳūb was assassinated by one of his eunuchs. The Marīnide sultan had founded, with the objec…


(4,029 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(plural of the ethnic Derḳāwī) a name collectively applied to the members of the Ṭarīḳa or Muḥammadan religious brotherhood, composed of the followers of Mūlāy ’l-ʿArbī al-Derḳāwī, the area of whose influence extends over Northwest Africa, particularly Morocco and Algeria. An individual member is called Derḳāwī while the plural is Derḳāwā. They are also called S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya-Derḳāwā, their brotherhood being an offshoot of the much older Ṭarīḳa of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya, founded by the Mag̲h̲ribī Ṣūfī Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. Origin of the Derḳāwā; The doctrine of th…


(760 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
— This title given to the founder of a religious brotherhood is also borne by his successors at the head of the hierarchy of the order and also by the heads of the various branches. The s̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ṭarīḳa, at once the spiritual and the temporal director of his group, must possess all moral qualities: he ought to be high-souled, austere, endowed with all the virtues, he must also possess all knowledge. Favoured by God who has endowed him with baraka (grace), he is the intermediary between the divinity and man. He has a perfect knowledge of the divine law or s̲h̲arīʿa [q. v.]; he knows the wic…


(951 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Couscous), a dish prepared with semolina. Throughout northwest Africa (Tripolitania, Sahara,Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) it is the basis of the food of the people. It is sometimes called ṭaʿām i. e. food par excellence. The Beduins of Eastern Algeria also call it naʿama, which has the same meaning; those of Western Algeria, maʿās̲h̲; those of the South and of the Sahara, ʿais̲h̲, also with the same sense. In Tunisia, the name ṭaʿām has even become applied to feasts at which this dish is particularly used, feasts known elsewhere as zarda (Eastern Algeria), waʿada (Western Algeria) and mu…


(173 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plur. Ḥusainīyūn, a name borne by those s̲h̲erīfs of Morocco who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet. Unlike the Ḥasanī [q. v.] the Ḥusainī came at a relatively late date to Morocco, where they in numbers at any rate never attained the importance of their cousins. They form two main groups, the Ṣaḳalīyūn and the ʿIrāḳīyūn. The Ṣaḳalīyūn (i.e. these who came from Sicily) were driven from their original home by the Norman conquest. They fled first to Spain and thence to Morocco in the reign of the Marīnid Sulṭ…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,383 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammed, the name of five Marīnide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān Muḥammed, son of the Marīnide sultan Abū ʿInān Fāris. The latter, while seriously ill, had designated Abū Zaiyān for the succession to the throne, indicating him at the same time the vizier Mūsā b. ʿĪsa’l-Aṣūlī as his prime minister. The illness of the monarch was growing worse, and the vizier, in order to avoid the competition of pretenders, wanted to hasten his master’s accession to the throne. He, accordingly, spoke of it to the principal personages of the Marīnide Court, who recognized Abū Zaiyān as sovereign. But just the same p…

Abū Zayyān II

(107 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Hammū II , sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. During the lifetime of his father he was governor of Algiers and tried in vain, on his father’s death, to seize power. He took refuge with the Marīnid sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad, who led an expedition against Tlemcen and made it possible for Abū Zayyān to be proclaimed in Muḥarram 796/Nov.-Dec. 1393. He remained a faithful vassal of the Marīnids. A patron of men of letters and poets, he was assassinated ¶ in 801/1398 after being driven from the throne by his brother Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh. (A. Cour*) Bibliography see ʿabd al-wādi…


(588 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in the plural Ḥasanīyūn, a kind of patronymic, or nisba given to the ʿAlid [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs, descendants of al-Ḥasan son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad. Hasanī is used in opposition to Ḥusainī, the surname of the S̲h̲erīfs, who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain the second son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima. In Morocco, however, the surname Ḥasanī is particularly applied to the S̲h̲erīfs descended from Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakīya, to distinguish them ¶ from their cousins the Idrīsīds [q. v.]. These S̲h̲erīfs, formerly located particularly in the south of …


(2,365 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Dawāʾir) plural of Dāʾira “circle”, a confederacy of families whose duty it is to give personal attendance on a native chief. Before the French conquest of Algeria, the name Dwāʾir was borne more particularly by four groups of families or tribes, encamped in the southwest of Oran, attached to the service of this town and its Bey. They were organised as a militia on a sort of feudal basis, and lived on the produce of lands granted them by the Turkish government, and on the booty won in expeditions against unsubjected tribes…


(895 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb b. ʿAmr Abū ʿUbaid, the oldest Hispano-Arab geographer, whose works have survived to us, flourished in the second ¶ half of the vth = xith century. His family, belonging to the great tribe of Bakr, took a prominent place among the Arab families of the West of Muslim Spain. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb, Ḳāḍī of Niebla, the grandfather of our al-Bakrī, was governor of Saltes and Huelva in the Caliphate of the Omaiyad His̲h̲ām al-Muʾaiyid. On the fall of this dynasty and during the socalled Ṭawāʾif period of anarchy which followed, he tried like so ma…


(432 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(G̲h̲aʾiṭa, G̲h̲ēṭa), an Arab musical instrument, very popular in North Africa and some districts of Southern Europe, a kind of cylindrical bagpipe with a movable wooden mouthpiece ( ḳaṣba) and rather wide bell-mouth. The cylindrical portion has seven holes on the upper side. The first hole below the mouthpiece is called yka sāʿida, the second s̲h̲as̲h̲ka, the third band̲j̲ka, the fourth d̲j̲ahārka, the fifth sīka, the sixth dūka and the seventh yka. On the lower side about midway between the yka sāʿida and the s̲h̲as̲h̲ka is an eighth hole called heftakā. The names of these holes ar…


(983 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, an Arab tribe of Northwestern Morocco. Its name in literary Arabic Ḵh̲ulṭ has become Ḵh̲loṭ in the vulgar dialect by regular metathesis, but the primitive form of the word is found in the adjective Ḵh̲ulṭī fem. Ḵh̲ulṭīya. The Ḵh̲loṭ who came into North Africa with the Hilālī invasion in the fifth (eleventh) century formed a part of the group of mixed Arab elements, known as Ḏj̲us̲h̲am from the name of the ancestor of one of them. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn and other Muslim historians, the Ḵh̲loṭ were the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. In Little…


(622 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār al-S̲h̲arīf al-Zarwīlī, a celebrated mystic, founder of the Muslim religious brotherhood or ṭarīḳa [q. v.] known as the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya [q. v.], which has itself given rise to some fifteen other brotherhoods like the Wafāʾrīya, the ʿArūsīya, the Ḏj̲azūlīya, the Hafnawīya etc. etc. He was born, according to some, at G̲h̲emāra near Ceuta about 593 (1196/1197); others say he was born at S̲h̲ād̲h̲ila, a place near the Ḏj̲abal Ẓafrān in Tunisia from which he would take his nisba of al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. In any case the ethnic al-Zarwīlī …
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