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K̲h̲ulṭ

(619 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, forme classique du nom d’une tribu du Nord-ouest du Maroc prononcé Ḵh̲loṭ (mais ethnique: Ḵh̲ulṭī). Venus dans l’Afrique du Nord avec l’invasion hilalienne au Ve/XIe siècle, les Ḵh̲loṭ faisaient partie des populations arabes «mélangées» connues sous le nom de Ḏj̲us̲h̲am; d’après Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn et d’autres historiens, ¶ les Ḵh̲loṭ seraient des Banū l-Muntafiḳ. Les Ḏj̲us̲h̲am se répandirent dans le Mag̲h̲rib central, s’y établirent et participèrent à toutes les luttes qui désolèrent la Berbérie; après la conquête almohade, ils essayèrent en va…

Gūm

(521 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
( ḳawm; orth. franc, goum), forme et prononciation usuelles, dans les pays arabes de l’Afrique du Nord, du nom donné au groupe des cavaliers armés ou des combattants d’une tribu. Son dérivé gūma signifie « une levée de goums, de troupes, une équipée de pillards», une «sédition», une «révolte». Ce sont les Turcs qui, dans les anciennes régences d’Alger et de Tunis, ont donné aux goums une existence officielle, en les établissant comme base de leur système d’occupation du pays. Toutes les tribus avaient été divisées par eux en mak̲h̲zen ou auxiliaires, dispensés de la plupart des impôts, et en r…

Abū Zayyān

(308 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
appellatif de trois souverains de la dynastie ʿabd-al-wādide de Tlemcen. I. Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, troisième souverain de la dynastie. Proclamé à Tlemcen le 2 d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 703/6 juin 1304, il obtint la levée du siège de la capitale par les troupes marīnides; puis il alla châtier les tribus de l’Est de son royaume qui avaient appuyé l’ennemi: les Berbères Tūd̲j̲īn furent contraints à la soumission et au paiement des impôts, les tribus arabes furent fort malmenées et refoulées dans le d…

Kuskusū

(981 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), terme probablement d’origine berbère désignant le couscous, une préparation culinaire à la semoule qui est le plat national des populations d’Afrique du Nord. Il apparaît avec l’article et un nūn final dans une anecdote qui montre un Oriental recevant du Prophète, en rêve, le conseil de soigner avec al-kuskusūn un Mag̲h̲rébin malade; cette anecdote, rapportée par Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.), est très connue, et c’est probablement elle qui a poussé des lettrés marocains à adopter la forme prêtée au Prophète. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der ara- bischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402),…

Dawāʾir

(628 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, pluriel de dāʾira, réunion de familles attachées au service et à la personne d’un chef indigène en Algérie. Avant la conquête française, le nom de dawāʾir (prononciation locale: dwāyr) fut spécialement porté par quatre groupes tribaux campés au Sud-ouest d’Oran et attachés au service du bey de cette ville, encore qu’il y eût des dawāʾir ailleurs, par exemple dans le Titteri. Ils étaient organisés comme une milice, vivant de l’usufruit des terres mises à leur disposition par le gouvernement turc et des profits des expéditions organisées contre les …

Ḏj̲ays̲h̲

(12,125 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, l’un des termes arabes usuels (avec d̲j̲und et ʿaskar) pour désigner l’armée. I. L’Arabie préislamique, tout en ayant vécu dans des conditions de petite guerre permanente, n’a connu d’armée spécifique qu’en cas d’occupation étrangère ou peut-être au Yémen. Les luttes entre tribus y mettaient en action virtuellement tous les hommes valides, mais sans organisation militaire, et les combats le plus souvent s’y résolvaient en exploits singuliers. Un embryon d’armée apparaît, si l’on veut, avec l’Islam, dans les expéditions conduites ou préparées par le Prophète, bien que le d̲j̲ihād

Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf, Abū l-Naṣr, deuxième souverain de la dynastie marocaine des ʿAlawides [voir ʿAlawis et Ḥasanī]. A la mort du sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, l’empire du Maroc s’était divisé. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, gouverneur de Meknès [voir Miknās] et frère du défunt, fut proclamé dans cette ville. Il marcha aussitôt sur la capitale, ¶ Fās, qui s’était déclarée contre lui et s’en empara; il y fut proclamé le 11 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 avril 1672. Il était alors âgé de 26 ans. Mais trois rivaux, son frère Mawlāy al-Ḥarrān dans le Tafilalt, son neveu Aḥmad b. Muḥriz proclamé à Marr…

Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf , Abu ’l-Naṣr , the second ruler of the Moroccan dynasty of the ʿAlawids [see ʿalawīs and ḥasanī ]. On the death of sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Meknès [see miknās ] and brother of the deceased sultan, was proclaimed sultan in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 April 1672), being then 26 years of age. But Three rivals, his brother Mawlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his nephew Aḥmad b. Muḥriz…

Abū Zayyān II

(107 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Hammū II , sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. During the lifetime of his father he was governor of Algiers and tried in vain, on his father’s death, to seize power. He took refuge with the Marīnid sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad, who led an expedition against Tlemcen and made it possible for Abū Zayyān to be proclaimed in Muḥarram 796/Nov.-Dec. 1393. He remained a faithful vassal of the Marīnids. A patron of men of letters and poets, he was assassinated ¶ in 801/1398 after being driven from the throne by his brother Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh. (A. Cour*) Bibliography see ʿabd al-wādi…

Abū Zayyān III

(198 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Aḥmad b. Abī Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh , second last ʿAbd al-Wādid ruler of Tlemcen. Thanks to the support of the Turks of Algiers he seized the power and was proclaimed in 947/1540. The Spaniards of Oran who supported his brother Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad undertook an expedition against Tlemcen, which failed (949/1543). After a second, victorious expedition, the Spaniards made it possible for Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad to seize the power (30 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʾda 949/7 March 1543), but he was soon…

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…

Gūm

(552 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Arabic ḳawm ; French goum ), the usual form and pronunciation, in the Arab countries of North Africa, of the name given to a group of armed horsemen or fighting men from a tribe. The derivative gūma signifies “a levy of gūm s, troops, a plundering foray”, “sedition”, “revolt”. It was the Turks who, in the former Regencies of Algiers and Tunis, gave the gūms an official existence by making them the basis of their system of occupation of the country. All the tribes had been divided by them into mak̲h̲zen or auxiliaries, who were exempt from most taxes, and raʿiyya , who wer…

K̲h̲ulṭ

(673 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the classical form of the name of a tribe of northwestern Morocco pronounced K̲h̲loṭ (but ethnic, K̲h̲ulṭi). The K̲h̲loṭ came into North Africa with the invasions of the Banū Hilāl in the 5th/11th century, and formed part of the “mixed” Arab people known as the D̲j̲us̲h̲am; according to Ibn K̲h̲aldūn and other historians, the K̲h̲loṭ allegedly belonged to the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. The D̲j̲us̲h̲am spread throughout the central Mag̲h̲rib, settled there and took part in all the wars which desolated B…

Abū Zayyān I

(113 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan , third sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Proclaimed in Tlemcen on 2 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 703/6 June 1304, he succeeded in having the siege of his capital by the Marīnid troops raised. He then chastised the tribes in the eastern part of his kingdom who had supported the enemy; the Tūd̲j̲īn Berbers were forced to submit and pay tribute, the Arab tribes were severely treated and driven back into the desert. On his return to Tlemcen, he…

Hansalīya

(774 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plural of hansalī, the name given to the members of the ṭarīḳa or religious brotherhood, founded by Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf al-Hansalī (known in Morocco as Sīdī Saʿīd Ahansal). The epithet Ahansal or Hansalī is said to be derived from his birthplace Hansala, a Berber village of the tribe of Benī Mṭīr (in the Moroccan Atlas). ¶ He belonged to a family of marabouts, whose most important ancestor, Sīdī Saʿīd al-Kabīr, is buried in Dades (southern Morocco), where his tomb is visited by many pilgrims. After the example of this holy man Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf spe…

al-Ḥasan

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Mūlāy Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Morocco, fourteenth of the dynasty still ruling there, the Ḥasanī [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa, also called Filālī S̲h̲erīfs or ʿAlawīs. After the death of his father Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (18th Rad̲j̲ab 1290 = 12th Sept. 1873) Mūlāy al-Ḥasan was chosen Sulṭān by the most prominent members of the Moroccan court, then in Marrākes̲h̲. But disturbances at once broke out on all sides; Fās, the capital of northern Morocco, drove out his governor Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Muḥammad al-Madanī Bennis; the…

Ḏj̲īs̲h̲

(2,659 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in classical Arabic Ḏj̲ais̲h̲ (see Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 258) army. The word in Northwest Africa has however two further special meanings. 1. Ḏj̲īs̲h̲, plur. Ḏj̲uyūs̲h̲ or Ḏj̲iyūs̲h̲ means in the south of Alg…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and …

Debdū

(2,406 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, a town in the east of Morocco at the western end of the chalk range which ruus from Tlemcen to Debdū; it is 3528 feet above sea-level (according to De Foucauld), about 85 miles, as the crow flies, from the sea and has a temperate climate. Debdū lies in the upper valley of the Wād Debdū, a tributary to the middle Mulūya on its right bank. “Debdū” says de Foucauld “is built on a delightful site at the foot of the right wall of the valley, which rises sheer upright to a he…

Ḥasanī

(588 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in the plural Ḥasanīyūn, a kind of patronymic, or nisba given to the ʿAlid [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs, descendants of al-Ḥasan son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad. Hasanī is used in …
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