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Ismāʿīl

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. S̲h̲arīf, Mūlāy, Sulṭān of Morocco, second of the dynasty of ʿAlawī or Filālī S̲h̲arīfs, also called Ḥasanī [q; v. for the genealogy of these S̲h̲arīfs]. On the death of Sulṭān Mūlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mūlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Mekines and brother of the deceased sulṭān, was proclaimed sulṭān in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082 (Apr. 14, 1672), being then 26 years of age. But three rivals, his brother Mūlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his…

Goum

(868 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(in written Arabic Ḳawm), the form and pronunciation usual in the Arab lands of North Africa of the name given to the body of armed horsemen or of fighting men of a tribe. Its derivative gouma means “a levy of goum or troops” or “a bold raid, rebellion, or revolt”. The written Arabic form ḳawm is also found in the dialects of North Africa with the meaning of “people, nation, tribe” etc. (Beaussier, Diet, pract. arabe-français des dialectes parlés en Algérie et en Tunisie). It should, however, be noted that ḳawm in written Arabic may also mean “enemies” or a “body of men going out to plunder” (Dozy, Su…

ʿĪsawīya, ʿĪsāwa

(909 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Aīssaoua), a collective name from the singular ʿĪsāwī (cf. Marçais, Textes Arabes de Tanger, p. 397 sq.): a name given to the k̲h̲wān [q. v.] or members of the Moroccan religious brotherhood founded by Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā and derived from this last name. In spite of the fame of this brotherhood, the life of Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Fihrī and his origin are little known. The ethnic al-Fihrī suggests a Spanish Arab origin. He travelled a great deal in his youth and was initiated in the east into the ecstatic exercises of the religious orders of the ¶ Ḥaidarīya and the Saʿdīya. Returning to the …

S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(439 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
This word means one who bears the marks of old age, who is over fifty (cf. Lisān, iii. 509). It is applied to aged relatives; the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ is the patriarch of the tribe or family. In pre-Islāmic antiquity the title Saiyid, the chief of the tribe, was frequently given the epithet S̲h̲aik̲h̲ meaning full maturity in years and therefore of mental powers. The moral influence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s over the Beduins was considerable and the term came to mean chiefs having a long career behind them, the glorious veterans. In the history of the Muslim period, it has ¶ frequently the sense of supreme c…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…

Saʿdians

(1,789 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Banū Saʿd), the name of the dynasty of S̲h̲arīfs in Morocco which in 1544 (951) replaced the Waṭṭāsid dynasty on the throne of Fās. From the beginning of the fifteenth century the expeditions of the Portuguese and Spanish against the Muslim lands in Spain or North Africa had raised to a great pitch the fanaticism of the Berbers and of the Arabs who reacted violently under the leadership of holy men, s̲h̲arīfs [q. v.] and marabouts [q. v.]. In a country organised according to tribes or divided into numerous little states of a feudal character, among peoples whose only lin…

Hansalīya

(774 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plural of hansalī, the name given to the members of the ṭarīḳa or religious brotherhood, founded by Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf al-Hansalī (known in Morocco as Sīdī Saʿīd Ahansal). The epithet Ahansal or Hansalī is said to be derived from his birthplace Hansala, a Berber village of the tribe of Benī Mṭīr (in the Moroccan Atlas). ¶ He belonged to a family of marabouts, whose most important ancestor, Sīdī Saʿīd al-Kabīr, is buried in Dades (southern Morocco), where his tomb is visited by many pilgrims. After the example of this holy man Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf spe…

al-Ḥasan

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Mūlāy Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Morocco, fourteenth of the dynasty still ruling there, the Ḥasanī [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa, also called Filālī S̲h̲erīfs or ʿAlawīs. After the death of his father Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (18th Rad̲j̲ab 1290 = 12th Sept. 1873) Mūlāy al-Ḥasan was chosen Sulṭān by the most prominent members of the Moroccan court, then in Marrākes̲h̲. But disturbances at once broke out on all sides; Fās, the capital of northern Morocco, drove out his governor Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Muḥammad al-Madanī Bennis; the…

Ḏj̲īs̲h̲

(2,659 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in classical Arabic Ḏj̲ais̲h̲ (see Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 258) army. The word in Northwest Africa has however two further special meanings. 1. Ḏj̲īs̲h̲, plur. Ḏj̲uyūs̲h̲ or Ḏj̲iyūs̲h̲ means in the south of Algeria and Morocco an armed band, which goes out on a g̲h̲azw (ambush for purposes of plunder or of a holy war) against a caravan or a body of troops. When the d̲j̲īsh consists of several hundred men, it is called a ḥarka. The Ḏj̲iyus̲h̲ carry on their operations from the Northern Sūdān or the Niger valley throughout fhe Sahara to the South of Algeria and Mor…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and abetted him in them. Wh…

Debdū

(2,406 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, a town in the east of Morocco at the western end of the chalk range which ruus from Tlemcen to Debdū; it is 3528 feet above sea-level (according to De Foucauld), about 85 miles, as the crow flies, from the sea and has a temperate climate. Debdū lies in the upper valley of the Wād Debdū, a tributary to the middle Mulūya on its right bank. “Debdū” says de Foucauld “is built on a delightful site at the foot of the right wall of the valley, which rises sheer upright to a height of 250 feet above t…

Gūm

(521 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
( ḳawm; orth. franc, goum), forme et prononciation usuelles, dans les pays arabes de l’Afrique du Nord, du nom donné au groupe des cavaliers armés ou des combattants d’une tribu. Son dérivé gūma signifie « une levée de goums, de troupes, une équipée de pillards», une «sédition», une «révolte». Ce sont les Turcs qui, dans les anciennes régences d’Alger et de Tunis, ont donné aux goums une existence officielle, en les établissant comme base de leur système d’occupation du pays. Toutes les tribus avaient été divisées par eux en mak̲h̲zen ou auxiliaires, dispensés de la plupart des impôts, et en r…

Abū Zayyān

(308 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
appellatif de trois souverains de la dynastie ʿabd-al-wādide de Tlemcen. I. Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, troisième souverain de la dynastie. Proclamé à Tlemcen le 2 d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 703/6 juin 1304, il obtint la levée du siège de la capitale par les troupes marīnides; puis il alla châtier les tribus de l’Est de son royaume qui avaient appuyé l’ennemi: les Berbères Tūd̲j̲īn furent contraints à la soumission et au paiement des impôts, les tribus arabes furent fort malmenées et refoulées dans le d…

K̲h̲ulṭ

(619 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, forme classique du nom d’une tribu du Nord-ouest du Maroc prononcé Ḵh̲loṭ (mais ethnique: Ḵh̲ulṭī). Venus dans l’Afrique du Nord avec l’invasion hilalienne au Ve/XIe siècle, les Ḵh̲loṭ faisaient partie des populations arabes «mélangées» connues sous le nom de Ḏj̲us̲h̲am; d’après Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn et d’autres historiens, ¶ les Ḵh̲loṭ seraient des Banū l-Muntafiḳ. Les Ḏj̲us̲h̲am se répandirent dans le Mag̲h̲rib central, s’y établirent et participèrent à toutes les luttes qui désolèrent la Berbérie; après la conquête almohade, ils essayèrent en va…

Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf, Abū l-Naṣr, deuxième souverain de la dynastie marocaine des ʿAlawides [voir ʿAlawis et Ḥasanī]. A la mort du sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, l’empire du Maroc s’était divisé. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, gouverneur de Meknès [voir Miknās] et frère du défunt, fut proclamé dans cette ville. Il marcha aussitôt sur la capitale, ¶ Fās, qui s’était déclarée contre lui et s’en empara; il y fut proclamé le 11 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 avril 1672. Il était alors âgé de 26 ans. Mais trois rivaux, son frère Mawlāy al-Ḥarrān dans le Tafilalt, son neveu Aḥmad b. Muḥriz proclamé à Marr…

Kuskusū

(996 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a word probably of Berber origin meaning couscous, a culinary preparation containing semolina which is the national dish of the peoples of North Africa. It appears with the article and with a final nūn in an anecdote depicting an Oriental being advised by the Prophet, in a dream, to treat with al-kuskusūn a sick Mag̲h̲ribī; this anecdote, related by Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.) is very well known and is probably responsible for leading Moroccan scholars to adopt the form attributed to the Prophet. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der arabischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402), heard kusukson/ kusk…

Kuskusū

(981 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), terme probablement d’origine berbère désignant le couscous, une préparation culinaire à la semoule qui est le plat national des populations d’Afrique du Nord. Il apparaît avec l’article et un nūn final dans une anecdote qui montre un Oriental recevant du Prophète, en rêve, le conseil de soigner avec al-kuskusūn un Mag̲h̲rébin malade; cette anecdote, rapportée par Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.), est très connue, et c’est probablement elle qui a poussé des lettrés marocains à adopter la forme prêtée au Prophète. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der ara- bischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402),…

Dawāʾir

(628 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, pluriel de dāʾira, réunion de familles attachées au service et à la personne d’un chef indigène en Algérie. Avant la conquête française, le nom de dawāʾir (prononciation locale: dwāyr) fut spécialement porté par quatre groupes tribaux campés au Sud-ouest d’Oran et attachés au service du bey de cette ville, encore qu’il y eût des dawāʾir ailleurs, par exemple dans le Titteri. Ils étaient organisés comme une milice, vivant de l’usufruit des terres mises à leur disposition par le gouvernement turc et des profits des expéditions organisées contre les …

Dawāʾir

(682 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, plural of dāʾira , group of families attached to the service and the person of a native chief in Algeria. Before the French conquest, the name of dawāʾir (local pronunciation dwāyr ) was borne especially by four tribal groups encamped to the south-west of Oran and attached to the service of the Bey of that city, although there were other dawāʾir, for example in the Titteri. They were organized as a militia, living on the products of the ¶ land put at their disposition by the Turkish government and the profit from expeditions against tribes who were unruly or refused to p…

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…
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