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Elis and Eretria, School of

(173 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] A construct of both ancient and modern historians of philosophy, based on the following facts: Hellenistic historians of philosophy grouped together  Phaedon of Elis and his disciples and their disciples as the School of Elis (Ἠλιακὴ αἵρεσις), and Phaedon's second or third generation disciple  Menedemus of Eretria and his followers as the School of Eretria (Ἐρετρική or Ἐρετριακὴ αἵρεσις) (Diog. Laert. 1,18-19 and passim). Modern historians of philosophy combined both traditions in…

Simmias

(168 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Σιμμίας). [German version] [1] S. from Thebes Friend of Socrates, 5th cent. BC Friend of Socrates [2] (Plat. Crit. 45b; Plat. Phdr. 242b; Xen. Mem. 1,2,48; 3,11,17); he and his companion Cebes were Socrates' main interlocutors in Plato's Phaídōn. According to Plat. Phd. 61de, before his stay in Athens S. met the Pythagorean Philolaus [2] in Thebes, but he himself was not a Pythagorean [1]. Plutarchus [2] has the conversation which is central to his work The Daimonion of Socrates (Περὶ τοῦ Σωκράτους δαιμονίου/Perì toû Sōkrátous daimoníou) take place in Thebes at the house of S., …

Pasiphon

(70 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πασιφῶν; Pasiphôn), son of Lucianus, an 'Eretrian' (Elis and Eretria, School of), probably lived in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC. One of P.'s dialogues contained comments on Nicias [1] (Plut. Nicias 4,2). According toPersaeus [2] and Favorinus, P. was the true author of works commonly attributed to others (Aeschines [1], Antisthenes [1], Diogenes [14] of Sinope) (Diog. Laert. 2,61; 6,73). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Cleinomachus

(100 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κλεινόμαχος; Kleinómachos) of Thurii, student of  Euclides [2] of Megara,  Megarian School. According to Diog. Laert. 2,112, C. was the first to write ‘on statements and predicates and such matters’ (περὶ ἀξιωμάτων καὶ κατηγορημάτων καὶ τῶν τοιούτων). This comment hints at contributions to the development of dialectics that are greater than we can presently perceive. In any case, after C. some ancient historians of philosophy called the Megarian School the  ‘Dialectics’ (Diog. Lae…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Phaenarete

(88 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαιναρέτη; Phainarétē). Mother of Patrocles from her first marriage, to Chaeredemus (Pl. Euthyd. 297e) and of Socrates from her second marriage, to Sophroniscus. In Pl. Tht. 148e-151d, Socrates explains that his mother was a midwife, and he equates his deeds with hers. It is not impossible that Plato invented the profession of P. for the sake of this metaphor, after which it became included as a 'fact' into the Socrates legend. Maieutic method Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 1562f.

Euclides

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης; Eukleídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian archon in 403/2 BC Athenian archon in 403/2 BC. During his year in office Athens made a new start following the Oligarchy of the Thirty (e.g., see And. 1,87-94) and, among others, officially adopted the Ionian alphabet (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [German version] [2] of Megara Student of Socrates Student of Socrates, founder of the  Megarian School; born between 450 and 435, probably died early in the 360s. In Plato's Phaedon (59c) E. is named among those …

Alexinus

(186 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀλεξῖνος; Alexînos) of Elis: a philosopher of the  Megarian school, who lived in the decades around 300 BC, A. first taught in his hometown of Elis, then in Olympia. In his treatise ‘On Education’ (Περὶ ἀγωγῆς; Perì agōgês), A. adopted a mediating position in the dispute between philosophers and rhetoricians concerning which of them played the primary role in education: one can learn a certain degree of skill of argument from rhetoricians, but these arguments are based on experience, probability and assumption, rath…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Hegesias

(418 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἡγησίας; Hēgēsías). [German version] [1] Cyrenaic, c. 300 BC  Cyrenaic, lived in the decades before and after 300 BC. Due to the modifications that he (presumably in dialogue with  Epicurus) made on the original Cyrenaic doctrine of pleasure, some ancient philosophical historians have a new phase in the history of the Cyrenaics begin with him. H. assessed the view that one could succeed in achieving  pleasure and avoiding pain much more pessimistically than the original Cyrenaics. …

Eubulides

(521 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὐβουλίδης; Euboulídēs). [German version] [1] E. from Miletus Megarian of the 4th cent. BC Member of the  Megarian school. The time when E. lived (mid 4th cent. BC) is determined by his intense attacks against Aristotle, which are repeatedly mentioned in the sources. In part these are personal attacks (Euseb. Praep. evang. 15,2,5), in part criticism of certain logical theorems by Aristotle (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Possibly, Aristotle may in turn have discussed the teachings of E. There is evidence tha…

Xanthippe

(279 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Ξανθίππη; Xanthíppē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Dorus Daughter of Dorus, with Pleuron parent of Agenor [3], Sterope, Stratonice and Laophonte (Apollod. 1,58). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical feeder of her imprisoned father Mycon Woman who fed her father Mycon in prison with her milk (Hyg. Fab. 254; the same motif with different names: Val. Max. 5,4, ext. 1; Plin. HN 7,121; Fest. 228,28-32; Solin. 1,124f.; Nonn. Dion. 26,101-145). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of the philosopher Socrates [2] Wife of the philosopher Socrates [2]; orig…

Megarian School

(346 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μεγαρικοί; Megarikoí). This word designates those philosophers belonging to the tradition of Socrates' pupil Euclides [2], whose home town was Megara. How much they had in common, beyond being pupils of Euclides, is hard to say. It seems there was neither an institutional organisation connecting them, nor a fixed place of teaching. Only Euclides and Stilpo are known to have lived in Megara. Other members of the School lived and worked in other places, at least temporarily ( Eubuli…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Stilpo

(448 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Στίλπων/ Stílpōn) from Megara (Megarian School); second half of the 4th and first third of the 3rd cent. BC. Since the information about his teachers is confusing, it remains unclear how S. fits into the sequence of Megarians. His character is repeatedly praised in the surviving sources. Emphasis is placed on his simple unaffected nature and his open confident manner in dealings with others; numerous anecdotes document his ready wit and his superior sense of humour. His skill at d…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Paraebates

(41 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Παραιβάτης/ Paraibátēs). Cyrenaic who lived towards the end of the 4th cent. BC. Teacher of Anniceris, Hegesias [1] and Menedemus [5] of Eretria who is said to later have despised him (Diog. Laert. 2,86; 2,134). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…
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