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Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Albis

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Elbe (never the Alb [3], despite [1]) has its source according to Tac. Germ. 41,2 [2. 242 f.] in the territory of the  Hermunduri, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 in the Sudeten, according to Cass. Dio 55,1,3 correctly in the ‘Vandal Mountains’ (Riesengebirge / Krkonoše). Known by the Romans since  Caesar, reached by  Drusus and  Tiberius in 9 and 5 BC, soon crossed by L.  Domitius Ahenobarbus, it was to have become the Germanic border of Rome -- a plan that failed. Therefore known to Tac. (Germ. 41,4) only by ‘hearsay’ ( nunc tantum auditur). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibli…

Cusus

(73 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] River, eastern or western border of the kingdom of Quadian Vannius founded in AD 19 inter Marum (March) et Cusum (Tac. Ann. 2,63,6), mostly identified with the Duria, i.e. with Hron (Gran), Ipel' (Eipel) or -- archaeologically the most probable -- Váh (Waag [1. 186104]). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 H.-W. Böhme, Arch. Zeugnisse zur Gesch. der Markomannenkriege, in: JRGZ 22, 1975, 153-217. TIR M 33,35f. G. Neumann, s.v. C., RGA 5, 112f. Ipel';

Iuvavum

(426 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia | Raeti, Raetia (modern Salzburg). In the territory of the Alauni the developing Roman site of I. (etymology disputed) on the left bank of the Salzach replaced the Celtic hill settlements on the Rainberg, the Festungsberg and the Kapuzinerberg in the later years of Augustus' reign (beginning 1st cent. AD). I. was built at the junction of the northern road along the crest of the Alps from Bregenz (Brigantium) and the long distance road from Aquileia leading over the Radstädter Tauernpass, and was raised to the status of mu…

Durnomagus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Dormagen. Late Flavian alae fort (3.3 ha) between Cologne and Neuss. Second construction phase in the mid 2nd cent. AD, probably the ala Noricorum (CIL XIII 8523f.); burnt down c. 200, and in c. 275 very briefly occupied. In the north-eastern corner was a reoccupation fort from late antiquity. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography M. Gechter, Das röm. Kavallerielager Dormagen, in: Arch. im Rheinland 1994, 1995, 85-87.

Heruli

(481 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Seafaring East Germanic tribe [1], which at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD was allegedly driven out of Scandinavia by the Danes and split into East and West Heruli. The latter attacked the Romans at the Lower Rhine in 287, were defeated and repeatedly attacked Roman territory from the Dutch-Frisian coast to southern Spain (esp. 456/459). Threatened by the  Franci, they made an effort in 476 to gain the friendship of the  Visigoths. At the beginning of the 6th cent. they are no longer attested. From their home by the Sea of Azov, the much stronger East H. advance…

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Divitia

(109 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Cologne-Deutz. Starting as a bridgehead across the Rhine opposite  Colonia Agrippinensis [1] early in the 1st cent. AD and rebuilt with a bridge by Constantine the Great to harbour 1,000 men on the Rhine border that is above flood level (Paneg. 6 [7],11,3; 13,1-5); parts of the structure lasted until Frankish times ( Divitia civitas: Greg. Tur. Franc. 4,16). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 B. Päffgen, W. Zanier, Überlegungen zur Lokalisierung von Oppidum Ubiorum und Legionslager im frühkaiserzeitlichen Köln, in: W. Czysz, C. M. Hüssen et …

Abnoba mons

(154 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Black Forest, German Schwarzwald, mountain region in south-western Germany, possibly including also the low mountain ranges of the Odenwald and Rothaargebirge to the north. In 15 BC,  Tiberius paid a visit there to see the sources of the Danube. From the late Tiberian/early Claudian period (2nd half of the 1st cent. AD), there was a Roman-influenced population on the eastern bank of the upper Rhine region; under the Flavians (2nd half of 1st cent. AD), the wooded mountain area und…

Bingium

(144 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (Vingo), now Bingen/Bingerbrück. Settlement on the bend of the Rhine. Geographically important location in the territory of the  Vangiones (CIL XVII 2,675) on the bridge of the Rhine valley road over the Nahe where the Trier - Mainz route branches off.  Iulius Tutor was defeated here in AD 70, and the bridge that he had pulled down (Tac. Hist. 4,70,4) was replaced around AD 77 as a pile grating (dendrochronologically confirmed; again c. 305); in the early 1st cent. a garrison of several cohorts and …

Celeia

(249 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Modern Célje (Cilli). Settlement in Noricum on the amber trade route near an originally Celtic-Illyrian settlement at the mouth of the Voglajna into the Savinja (Sann). C. owed its early and rapid development to its favourable location on one of the main access routes to the Illyro-Italian gateway. Under the emperor Claudius, it was probably a   municipium of the tribus Claudia (CIL III 5143; 5227; cf. CIL VI 2382) which, in the middle of the 2nd cent., supplied high-ranking imperial officials [1…
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