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Orte des Protestantismus [Hinzugefügt 2017]

(7,012 words)

Author(s): Becker, Judith | Jürgens, Henning P. | Herausgeber: Judith Becker | Hofmann, Andrea | Dingel, Irene
1. Allgemeines 1.1. GrundlagenDer Protestantismus kennt, wie alle monotheistischen Religionen und christl. Konfessionen, für sein Selbstverständnis zentrale Orte ( Orte der Religionen). Diese sind in der Regel nicht als »hl.« definiert, sondern als Orte, an denen sich die Erinnerung an bestimmte für die Konfession grundlegende Ereignisse festmacht. Es sind Orte, die zur Veranschaulichung und Erinnerung dienen; sie sind jedoch – zumindest in der theologischen Theorie – immer dem Wort als Mitte der theologischen Leh…
Date: 2019-11-19

Hugenotten

(1,350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. BegriffH. war vom 16. bis zum 18. Jh. eine ursprünglich pejorative Bezeichnung für die franz. Reformierten ( Calvinismus). Der Terminus geht wohl auf das seit 1520 belegte eyguenot (»Eidgenossen«) zurück und ist seit der Verschwörung von Amboise 1560 – neben der Benennung als Anhänger der »vorgeblich reformierten Religion« (franz. religion prétendue réformée, R.P. R.) – auch in offiziellen Texten zu finden, nachdem man zu Anfang die reformatorisch Gesinnten évangéliques oder luthériens genannt hatte.Irene Dingel2. Formierung der kirchlichen InstitutionBereits in den …
Date: 2019-11-19

Huguenots

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. Concept “Huguenot” from the 16th to 18th centuries was the originally pejorative term for French Calvinists. It probably derived from eyguenot (“oath-companion, confederate”, cf. the German word for the Swiss,  Eidgenosse), attested from 1520. Reformation sympathizers were initially called évangéliques or  luthériens in official documents, but after the 1560 Amboise Conspiracy, the term “Huguenot” was also used, defined as followers of the “purportedly reformed religion” (French  religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.).Irene Dingel 2. Establishment of c…
Date: 2019-10-14

Bucanus, Wilhelm

(148 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (du Buc, Guillaume; born Rouen, died Lausanne, 1603). After 23 years as a pastor and superintendent in Yverdon, Bucanus was appointed professor of theology at Lausanne in 1591. He died before he could accept an appointment to the academy at Saumur. His importance for French Protestantism comes from his Institutiones, planned as a textbook, which expounds the teaching of Calvinistic orthodoxy. They were circulated posthumously through an English translation, expanded by the addition of a tract on The Practise of Papists against Protestant Princes; because of …

Major, Georg

(384 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Maier, Meyer; Apr 25, 1502, Nuremberg – Nov 28, 1574, Wittenberg). After studying at Wittenberg, Major succeeded C. Cruciger as rector of the Johannisschule in Magdeburg. In 1537 he returned to Wittenberg as preacher at the Schlosskirche. Appointed to the Wittenberg consistory in 1542, in 1545 he took over the professorship of J. Jonas on the theological faculty, having received his Dr.theol. from Luther at the end of 1544. In 1546 he was one of the participants in the Colloquy o…

Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg count of Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), begun by G. Farel. The introduction of the Württemberg church order of 1536 and then the order of 1559 created difficulties, since Tossanus and his colleagues favored the Swiss Reformation. Negotiations le…

Languet, Hubert

(185 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1518, Vitteaux, France - Sep 30, 1581, Antwerp, Belgium), studied law in Poitiers and earned a doctorate in Padua. He was won over to the Reformation after reading Melanchthon's Loci communes, whereupon he went to Wittenberg in 1549 to meet the praeceptor. The latter's recommendation to the councilor of Electoral Saxony, Ulrich von Mordeisen, enabled him to enter the service of August I, Elector of Saxony (until 1577). Diplomatic missions led him, among other places, to Paris and to the imperial court in Vienna. He was …

Huguenots

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene | Butler, Jon | Weber, Édith
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Music I. Church History 1. Europe The term Huguenot – whose etymology is unclear, although it probably traces back to the French eyguenot (cf. Ger. Eidgenossen) attested since 1520 – surfaces in relation to the Amboise conspiracy in 1560 and soon also found entry – in addition to the otherwise customary designation of French Protestants as adherents of the “supposedly reformed religion” ( religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.) – into official texts. As early as the 1520s and 1530s, under the influence of the biblical humanism…

Staffort Book

(190 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1599). The Staffort Book is witness to the change of confessional allegiance of Margrave Ernst Friedrich v. Baden-Durlach, one of the three sons of Margrave Charles II, on whose behalf the guardians Louis, elector palatine, Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg, and Duke Louis of Württemberg had signed the Formula of Concord after the margrave’s death. The book, printed at Schloß Staffort near Durlach, consisted – in its larger version – of a rejection of the Formula of Concord…

Chandieu, Antoine de la Roche

(179 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (c. 1534, chateau Chabottes-en-Mâconnais – Feb 23, 1591, Geneva). Having already come into contact with Reformed thinking through his tutor in Paris, after law studies in Toulouse Chandieu went to Geneva, where he was won over for the Reformation by Calvin and Beza. From 1557 to 1562 he was pastor of the Protestant congregation in Paris and he took part in the first general synod in 1559, also participating in the preparation of the confession a…

Saumur, Huguenot Academy

(401 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The establishment, rise, and heyday of the Saumur academy are closely associated with the name of P. Duplessis-Mornay. In March of 1593, the governor of Saumur received from King Henry IV a decree empowering him to found an academy; this and the Edict of Nantes in 1598 (Huguenots: I, 1) created the conditions for establishing a Calvinist training center in that city, which was one of the safe havens for Huguenots. The Academy comprised a collège, a faculty of arts, and a faculty of theology, with chairs in rhetoric, ancient languages, mathematics, philos…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he convened the first s…

Fleury, Claude

(208 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1640, Paris – Jul 14, 1723, Paris). After attending the Jesuit college in Clermont, Fleury studied law and became parliamentary advocate in 1658. In 1667, he began to study theology under the influence of J.-B. Bossuet and was ordained priest on Jun 8, 1669. From 1672 to 1680, he was the tutor of the princes of Conti, and from 1680 to 1683 of the count of Vermandois, a legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Fleury participated alongside F…

Jurieu, Pierre

(339 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1637, Mer, Département Loir-et-Cher – Jan 11, 1713, Rotterdam). The son of a Reformed pastor and grandson of the theologian ¶ P. Du Moulin studied in Saumur, Sedan, and England, where he was ordained according to the Anglican rite. In 1660 – after a Calvinist ordination – he succeeded his father in Mer; in 1674, he became professor of theology and Hebrew in Sedan. After the dissolution of the academy in 1681, Jurieu, who had become suspect because of his pamphlet, “La politique du clergé de Fra…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Daillé, Jean

(167 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dallaeus; Jan 1, 1594, Châtellerault – Apr 15, 1670, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy in Châtellerault and Poitiers, Daillé turned to theology in 1612 in Saumur. As the tutor of the grandchildren of P. Duplessis-Mornay in Saumur, he became friends with the professors of the academy and traveled with his students through Western …

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…

Postel, Guillaume

(346 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1510, Dolerie, near Barenton, Normandy – Sep 6, 1581, Paris) studied in Paris, where he became adept in many languages. His participation in a French delegation to Constantinople (1535–1537) brought him into contact with Arabic. On his return, he published not only a grammar of Arabic (c. 1538) but Linguarum duodecim characteribus (1538), a comparative study in which his later ideas were already laid out: the derivation of all languages from Hebrew, the need for Christian mission in the face ¶ of Islam, and knowledge of languages as an instrument for th…

Coligny, Gaspard de

(255 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Seigneur de Châtillon; Feb 16, 1519, Châtillon-sur-Loing – Aug 24, 1572, Paris) was admiral of France from 1552 onward, and governor of Picardy from 1555. A Calvinist sympathizer, he was captured by the Spanish at the battle of St. Quentin (1557) and held captive in the Netherlands. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (Apr 3, 1559) enabled him to resume his diplomatic functions. By speaking out in defense of his persecuted co-religionists during the a…

Ferry, Paul

(182 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1591, Metz, France – Dec 28, 1669, Metz). After attending the Jesuit college in Metz, Ferry, from a leading Huguenot family (Huguenots) began his study of the liberal arts in 1607 ( artes liberales ) in La Rochelle and transferred in 1609 to Montauban, to study Protestant theology there until 1611. He was ordained a pastor in Metz on Jan 1, 1612. J.B. Bossuet attacked his Catéchisme général de la réformation et de la religion (1656), and the two were engaged in dialogue thereafter. Ferry eventually rejected Bossuet's attempts at denominational rapprochement. Ferr…
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