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(82 words)

Author(s): Drees, Willem B.
[German Version] is the study of the universe. Calendar have been based on the apparent motions of the sun and the moon. The more intuitive geocentric view was replaced by a heliocentric system (N. Copernicus, J. Kepler, G. Galilei, I. Newton). Astronomy has now enlarged its domain to include space and time and has been integrated with physics (Astrophysics). It is quite distinct from astrology, which attempts to relate astronomical phenomena to human characters and events. Willem B. Drees


(86 words)

Author(s): Drees, Willem B.
[German Version] is physics under the wide range of circumstances which occur in the universe. Its main data come from spectroscopy (light, radio wave, X-rays, etc.), cosmic rays and neutrinos. It explains successfully, for instance, the formation of stars and of clusters of stars by gravity, and with the help of nuclear physics, it explains the evolution of stars and the origin of chemical elements. To understand the very early universe, theories of matter and space-time need to be integrated. Willem B. Drees

Determinism and Indeterminism

(3,196 words)

Author(s): Drees, Willem B. | Rudolph, Ulrich | Clayton, Philip
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Systematic Theology – III. Islamic Theology – IV. Philosophy of Science – V. Physics I. Fundamental Theology Determinism is the thesis that given a particular state of affairs (e.g. “the world now”) another state cannot be other than it is or will be (e.g. “the world tomorrow”). Fatalism is a slightly different idea, namely that an aspect of reality is unavoidable (e.g. one's own death…


(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science I. History of Religions 1. So-called chaos research (see VI below) has renewed a positive meaning of the term with the model of the “creative” self-organization of matter (thus without the goal-oriented will of an ordering creator). Previously, since Late Antiquity, a negative evaluation of chaos had prevailed: Since creation demonstrates the existence of God, chaos was a negative in relation to the Creator God in a dualistic system, as disorder ( confusio: Augus…