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(483 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Zenobia | | Hellenistic states | Pompeius | Patricius (Δορύλαιον , Δορύλλειον; Dorýlaion, Dorýlleion). Important city in the north of Phrygia (modern Eskişehir) between the river Tembris (Porsuk Çayı) and its tributary Bathys (called Hermus by Plin. HN 5,119; modern Sarısu). The ancient site is located on a hill (Şarhüyük, ‘Hill of the city’), that was inhabited already in the Hittite and Phrygian period (currently Turkish excavations); founded anew as a Greek city by…


(107 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λάγβη; Lágbē). Town in north-east Lycia, near modern Alifahrettin; it dominated the small, high plain north of Lake Cabalitis (the former Söğüt Gölü, today dried up) and belonged to the territory of Cibyra. Part of the Roman province of Asia (Caria province from Diocletian on), plundered by Manlius Vulso during his campaign of 189 BC (Liv. 38,15,2). Epigraphical evidence attests a cult of Artemis Lagbene and the existence of a private estate. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography Chr. Naour, Tyriaion en Caba…


(175 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Xenophon | Education / Culture (Κολοσσαί; Kolossaí). City in south-west Phrygia, 4 km north-north-west of Honaz, significant already in the 5th cent. BC (Xen. An. 1,2,6; cf. Plin. HN 5,145), 15 km east-south-east of Laodicea, on the road through the Lycus valley between Sardeis and Celaenae. Coins have been attested from the late Hellenistic period onwards. The city was famous for its wool industry (Str. 12,8,16). St. Paul's lett…


(611 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Christol, Michel (Paris)
[German version] [1] Continent see  Asia Minor Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Christol, Michel (Paris) [German version] [2] Roman province The   provincia A. was established in 129 BC when Rome took possession of the kingdom of  Pergamum, which was bequeathed to the Roman people by its last king  Attalus III (died 133 BC) (Liv. Per. 58f.). The Romans first had to assert themselves against  Aristonicus, the illegitimate brother of the departed king. But the majority of the Greek cities had remained l…


(347 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Xenophon | Alexander | Celts | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Pergamum | Pompeius Pre-classical city near Yassıhüyük west-south-west of Ankara on the eastern bank of the Sangarius, located at a ford of the road from Pessinus to Ancyra (ruins visible). Apparently founded as a residence by its eponym, Gordius, the first Phrygian king. Excavations uncovered rich royal tombs in wooden chambers under tumuli (cf. map), further a citadel which was fortified in the 8th and 6th cents. BC, later to be destroyed b…

Ceramon agora

(54 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Κεράμων ἀγορά; Kerámōn agorá). A ‘populated town’ between Peltae and  Caystrou pedion, ‘the last town (in Phrygia) in the direction of Mysia’, only mentioned in Xen. An. 1,2,11; localization impossible. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 11, 254f.


(592 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
(Ἀπάμεια; Apámeia). [German version] [1] City in  Bithynia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pergamum | Education / Culture City in  Bithynia, 1 km south-east of present-day Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara; founded by Colophon; originally Brylleion; from shortly after 330 BC Myrleia. From 433/32 BC attested as belonging to the  Delian League; at the end of the 4th cent. BC under the rule of Mithridates II of Cius; for a time in the 3rd cent. BC a member of the koinon of Athena Ilias. In 202 BC conquered by Philip V and delivered to Prusias I; newly founded as A…


(230 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κίβυρα; Kíbyra). [German version] [1] Town in Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia Important town in southern Phrygia (modern Gölhisar, formerly Horzum) on the border with Lycia. C. belonged to a tetrapolis with Bubon, Balbura, and Oenoanda, in which it had two votes, the other three member only one vote each; the tetrapolis was dissolved in 84 BC by L.  Licinius Murena, and C. incorporated into the Roman province of Asia (Str. 13,4,17); from about 56 to 49 BC, it was part of…


(461 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Delian League | Education / Culture (Κύζικος; Kýzikos). City in Mysia on the south coast of the  Propontis on the isthmus of the Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ) peninsula; the modern Balkız, to the east of Erdek. C. owed its prosperity to its double harbour and large territory (cf. the description with the city's location at Str. 12,8,11). From the beginning of coinage down to …


(605 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Bakir-Akbasoglu, Tomris (Izmir)
(Δασκύλειον, Δασκύλιον; Daskýleion, Daskýlion). [German version] [1] City in Bithynia City in Bithynia, member of the  Delian League, whose name is thought to be contained in the place name Eşkel Liman (today Esence) on the coast of the Propontis west of Apamea Myrleia (Plin. HN 5,143; Steph. Byz. s.v. Brýllion). Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bakir-Akbasoglu, Tomris (Izmir) [German version] [2] Settlement on the south-east shore of Lake Daskylitis This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Xenophon | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | H…


(270 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Εὐμένεια; Euméneia). [German version] [1] Town in the south of Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pergamum Town in the south of Phrygia (modern Işıklı), founded by Attalus II in the name of his brother Eumenes II (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.), close to the Maeander at the foot of a mountain. The numerous inscriptions from E. and its surroundings are mainly from the Roman period and are mostly tomb inscriptions; for the necropoleis that were intensively depleted by the farmers were located on…


(1,073 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κάδμος; Kádmos, Lat. Cadmus). [German version] [1] Son of Agenor and Telephassa Son of  Agenor [1] (or Phoenix) and  Telephassa (or Argiope or Tyro), brother (or half-brother) of  Phoenix,  Cilix and others, uncle (or brother) of  Europa [2], husband of  Harmonia, father of  Agave,  Autonoe, Ino,  Semele and of  Polydorus (first mentioned in Hom. Od. 5.333; Kadmeíoi Kadmeíōnes already mentioned in Hom. Il. 4.385 and passim; Hes. Theog. 937; 975-978; at least since Bacchyl. 19.46-51 descendant of Io). In his search for Europa, C. leaves Tyre (Hdt. 2.49.3; Eur. Phoen. 639)…


(130 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Μίδαιον/ Mídaion; Μιδάειον/ Midáeion). City named after its legendary founder king Midas (on coins from M.). Near the River Tembris (Porsuk Çayı; on coins from M.) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,8,12) at Karahöyük on a high hill. Inhabited from Phrygian until Byzantine times. To the east of Dorylaeum on the road to Pessinus (Tab. Peut. 9,3). As early as the 5th cent. BC mentioned by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 17). Sextus Pompeius was captured here in 36 BC (Cass. Dio 49,18,4). M. was in the conventus of Synnada (Plin. HN 5,105). It minted coins from Augustus until Phili…


(176 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Ἴψος; Ípsos). Town near the Turkish village of Çayırbağı (formerly Sipsin, retaining its ancient name) near Afyon in central Phrygia. Famous as the site of the battle in 301 BC in which  Lysimachus and  Seleucus put an end to the plans of  Antigonus [1] and his son Demetrius to retain the state created by Alexander the Great (Plut. Demetrius 29f.). I. has been located on a hill with Phrygian remains and Byzantine walls in the …


(201 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander (Κελαιναί; Kelainaí). Former main town of Phrygia (Liv. 38,13), later founded again as  Apamea [2] by  Antiochus [2] I (Str. 12,8,15); modern Dinar. In C. stood a palace of Xerxes (Xen. An. 1,2,9) with a   parádeisos (‘game reserve’) of Cyrus (Xen. An. 1,2,7); it is named after Celaenus, a son of Poseidon, venerated in C. because of frequent earthquakes (Str. 12,8,18; but the coins of C. depict Zeus and Dionysus Kelaineus). …


(224 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River in Lydia River in Lydia (Καΰστριος; Kaÿ́strios: Hom. Il. 2,461; Hdt. 5,100; Κάϋστρος; Káÿstros: Str. 13,3,2; Arr. Anab. 5,6,4; Mela 1,88), modern Küçük Menderes (‘Little Maeander’); it rises on the southern slopes of Mount Tmolus above Coloë (modern Keles near Kiraz); it flows through the plain of Kilbis, then through the  Caystrou pedion [1], absorbs from the right tributaries from Mount Tmolus, from the left those from the Mesogis mountains (modern Cevizli dağı) (Plin. HN 5,115), and…


(817 words)

Author(s): Kowalzig, Barbara (Oxford) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Μέλισσα/ Mélissa, ‘bee’). Epithet of priestesses, name of nymphs and proper name, sometimes in aetiological myths. [German version] [1] Priestesses of Demeter Mélissai are the priestesses of Demeter (Pind. Fr. 158; Callim. H. 2,110; [1. no. 91]; Apollod. FGrH 244 F 89, on Paros), and in schol. Theoc. 15,94 of Persephone as well. The name probably derives from the association of bees and their behaviour, which was thought of as especially pure (Aristot. Hist. an. 4,535a 2 f.; schol. Pind. P. 4,106a), with idealised f…


(119 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Δίνδυμον; Díndymon). Mountain on the border between Galatia and Phrygia (modern Arayit or Günüzü Dağı), 1,820 m high, near the spring of the Sangarius (Claud. in Eutropium 2,262f., cf. Str. 12,3,7). Some ancient authors derived the mountain's name from its ‘double’ or ‘forked’ appearance (Nonnus, Dion. 48,855). D. was famous for the cult of Cybele, whose temple was located in the nearby town of Pessinus and who also bore the name Dindyménē (Str. 12,5,3), here and elsewhere. Attis was buried there (Paus. 1,4,5, who calls this mountain Ágdistis). A base of Alexius' …


(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…


(186 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] Mythical tribe from the region inhabited by the Phryges in Greek and Roman times, including the area known as Galatia in Hellenistic times ( Berecyntos, ‘a castellum in Phrygia on the Sangarius’: Serv. Aen. 6,784). Used as a synonym for ‘Phrygian’ by poets of classical (e.g. Aeschyl. Niobe), Hellenistic (Callim. H. 3, 246), and Roman times (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,18; 3,19; Ov. Met. 11,106), and also by prose writers (from Stesimbrotus, Str. 10,3,20, to Aug. Civ. 2,5,7). However, Str. 12,8,21, maintains: ‘There …
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