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Blood

(3,317 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Jarzebowski, Claudia
1. Medicine 1.1. Humoral pathologyUntil the early 18th century, blood was thought of as the moist, well-tempered “sap that fills the blood vessels and is thought [by physicians] to consist of four particular humors: phlegm, yellow and black bile, and the blood proper” [1]. In the view of humoralism, the humors with their associated qualities (blood: warm, moist; yellow bile: warm, dry; phlegm: cold, moist; black bile: cold, dry) are produced by digestion (Latin coctio, literally “cooking”) of food; they are always present in whole blood in varying proportion. The o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Medicalization

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Jütte, Robert
1. DefinitionThe term medicalization goes back to the French medical historiography of the  Annales school [4]. It was first defined by the French historian Jean-Pierre Goubert [9. 170]. He understood medicalization as a long-term process that began in the second half of the 18th century, in the course of which physicians succeeded in imposing their medical services on broad strata of the population with the help of the state. This was a process that expanded the medical marketplace, in which one professional group wa…
Date: 2019-10-14

Iatrochemie

(909 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Müller-Jahncke, Wolf-Dieter
1. Begriff und GrundlagenWährend die Iatroastrologie ebenso wie die Iatromagie ab dem 17. Jh. an Einfluss verlor, verstärkte sich nach dem Erscheinen von Paracelsus' Schriften ab 1560 die Bedeutung der Chemie als tragender Säule des neuen Lebenskonzeptes (Paracelsismus; Chemische Wissenschaften). Die Kernaussage, dass alle Lebensvorgänge essentiell chemisch determiniert seien, verfestigte sich zum Denksystem der I. (von griech. iatrós, »Arzt« und neulat. ( al) chemía, »Chemie«; auch Chemiatrie, Chymiatrie) [7]; [3]; [6].Die I. des 16. und 17. Jh.s ist Ausdruck ei…
Date: 2019-11-19

Iatrochemistry (chymiatria)

(951 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Müller-Jahncke, Wolf-Dieter
1. Definition and basicsWhile the influence of iatroastrology, like that of iatromagic, waned after the 17th century, with the appearance of Paracelsus’ works beginning in 1560, the importance of chemistry as a cornerstone of the new concept of life increased (Paracelsism; Chemical sciences). The central assertion that all life processes are essentially chemical solidified into the intellectual system of iatrochemistry (from Greek  iatrós, “physician,” and neo-Latin ( al) chemía, “chemistry”; also called chemiatry and chymiatry) [7]; [3]; [6].The iatrochemistry of the …
Date: 2019-10-14

Psychologie

(3,002 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Greve, Ylva | Klippel, Diethelm | Walther, Gerrit
1. Allgemein 1.1. Definition und frühe BegriffsgeschichteDer Begriff P. stammt aus dem Griechischen (von psych椃, ursprgl. ›Atem‹, ›Seele‹; d. h. ›Seelenkunde‹). Die moderne empirische Wissenschaft der P. begründete ihr weltweit erstes Forschungsinstitut 1879 in Leipzig. In philosophischer Perspektive setzte die europ. P. als Beschäftigung mit den Eigenschaften der Seele jedoch schon mit den Vorsokratikern im 5. Jh. v. Chr. ein.Der kroat. Humanist Marcus Marulus (Marulić) soll 1510/17 einen (verschollenen) Traktat Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae (›Seelenkunde …
Date: 2019-11-19

Tier

(4,838 words)

Author(s): Smith, Justin E.H. | Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Sieglerschmidt, Jörn
1. Naturphilosophie 1.1. Abgrenzung zum MenschenDer Begriff des Tierischen wird in der Nz. häufig direkt oder indirekt mit dem des Menschlichen kontrastiert [10]. Anfänglich wurde er verwendet, um das Gebiet der philosophischen Anthropologie abzugrenzen (Mensch, Menschheit); erst später bezeichnete »T.« die Studienobjekte der Zoologie. Diese anthropozentrische Perspektive findet sich deutlich etwa in den renaissancezeitlichen Druckausgaben von ma. Bestiarien, die alle bekannten T.-Arten aus der realen Welt und dem Reich von Phantasie und Fabel meist i…
Date: 2019-11-19

Animal

(5,217 words)

Author(s): Smith, Justin E.H. | Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Sieglerschmidt, Jörn
1. Natural philosophy 1.1. Distinction from humanDirectly or indirectly, the concept of the animal was frequently contrasted with that of the human in the early modern period [10]. Initially, it was used to define the sphere of philosophical anthropology (Humanity). Only later did “animal” come to denote an object of zoological study (Zoology). This anthropocentric perspective is clearly seen, for instance, in Renaissance printed editions of medieval bestiaries, which present all known species of animals – from the real w…
Date: 2019-10-14

Psychology

(3,246 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe | Greve, Ylva | Klippel, Diethelm | Walther, Gerrit
1. Introduction and general history 1.1. Definition and early terminological historyThe word “psychology” comes from the Greek ( psychḗ, originally “breath,” “soul”; i.e. “lore of the soul”). The modern empirical science of psychology established its first research institute at Leipzig in 1879, but from a philosophical perspective, European psychology (as a study of the properties of the soul) began with the work of the Presocratic philosophers in the 5th century BCE.The Croatian Humanist Marcus Marulus (Marulić) is said to have written a treatise (now lost) entitled Psichio…
Date: 2021-03-15
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