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Brothers of the Christian Schools,

(439 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] term for members of various Catholic congregations with a mission of teaching and training. I. Brothers of the Christian Schools (De La Salle Brothers, Fratres Scholarum Christianarum, FSC), founded in 1681 by J.B. de La Salle in Reims. Gradual development into the congregation recognized by the pope in 1725 which set itself the task of school education for the lower and middle classe…

Opus Dei

(548 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (“God’s Work,” officially: Praelatura personalis Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), is one of the most influential and at the same time most controversial institutions within the Catholic Church. It was founded in 1928 in Madrid by the Spanish priest Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer (Saint, 1902–1975) as an association for laymen (in 1930 a strictly separate women’s branch was founded), for the sanctification of work and the Christianization of society; in 1941 it was approved as pia unio. In order to have their own clergy, the “Priestly Society of the Holy Cros…

Salesian Sisters

(249 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Visitationists, Sisters of the Visitation, Ordo de Visitatione Beatae Mariae Virginis, OVM, VSM). The order was found in 1610 in Annecy (France) by Francis of Sales and J.F. of Chantal as a contemplative order with simple vows and modified enclosure, enabling them to minister to the poor and the sick. In 1618, at the insistence of the archbishop of Lyon, they adopted the Augustinian rule (Augustine, Rule of Saint), solemn vows, and papal enclosure; as a result, they concentrated …

Ursulines

(424 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Sanctae Ursulae, OSU), the most important women’s religious institute for the education (V, 2) of young girls. The order was founded by St. Angela Merici (c. 1470–1540) in Brescia (northern Italy) as a women’s congregation with vows of chastity and a rule but without living in community. Its most important sponsor was C. Borromeo, who saw to a revision of the original rule and in 1576 ordered settlement of the Ursulines, who had been working in Milan since 1566, in all the d…

Celestines

(316 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Pietro del Morrone (later Pope Celestine V) founded the male branch (Hermits of St. Damian, Fratres de Spiritu Sancto, Coelestini, OSBCoel) between 1240 and 1243 as a strictly ascetic monastic community following the Rule of Benedict (supplemented with Constitutions). It was confirmed by pope Urban IV in 1263 and spread quickly in Italy and, after 1300, in France; with a few monasteries also in Spain, Belgium, and Germany (Oybin near Zittau, Prague, …

Cross, Orders and Congregations of the Holy

(1,136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Orders of Men – II. Orders of Women I. Orders of Men 1. Generally speaking, the terms Cruciferi, Crocigeri, and Cruciati refer to members of hospital orders (Hospitallers) and various other orders of knights (Knights, Orders of) whose clothing is adorned with the sign of the cross. More specifically, they are applied to the members of numerous congregations of canons regular that originated in the period of the Crusades, such as the Canons Regular of the…

Sisters of Zion/Priests of Zion

(182 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Sisters of Our Lady of Zion (Religieuses de Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregatio Nostrae Dominae de Sion, NDS), a congregation founded in Paris in 1843 by Théodore Ratisbonne (1802–1884), a Catholic priest from a Jewish banking family, for educating children of non-Christian families. The first houses were established in Jerusalem, Turkey (both 1856), England (1861), Romania (1866), and Egypt (1869). Vatican II gave their educational, charitable, and catechumenal apostolate a new ec…

Sisters of Christian Charity

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (SCC; Daughters of the Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Conception). The congregation was founded in Paderborn in 1849 by Pauline v. Mallinckrodt (1817–1881) for social and charitable work (initially primarily education of the blind, followed soon by education of girls and pastoral ministry). When they were expelled during the Kulturkampf (1873, return in 1887), they spread to the United States and Chile. Today some 700 sisters work in Germany, Italy, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Philippines. They are a congregation under papal law; their general council is in Rome. Manf…

Sisters of Elizabeth

(276 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, the Sisters of Elizabeth of Hungary lived communally or semicommunally in Franciscan style; they were major supporters of the religious women’s movement and the semi-religious life. After Trent they usually lived in independent houses. In the 19th century, several congregations were organized, usually associated with a male Franciscan order, including: 1. The Order of the Sisters of St. Elizabeth (of Hungary), founded in Aachen in 1622 by Apollonia Radermecher (1571–1626). They spread through the Rhineland and Lux…

Ward, Mary

(212 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1585, Mulwith, near Ripon, England – Jan 30, 1645, Heworth, near York), founder of the Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis (Congregatio Jesu). After joining the Walloon Poor Clares in St.-Omer (Flanders) in 1606, in 1609/1610 she founded an institute in St.-Omer for the education and pastoral care of girls, modeled on the Jesuits. She had already founded ten settlements with schools in several European countries when Urban VIII suppressed her work in 1631, citing absence of…

Schönstatt Movement

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] This movement of spiritual renewal emerged in 1914 from the educational work of Father J. Kentenich at the seminary of the Pallottines in Schönstatt (today a district in Vallendar am Rhein); it became independent in 1964. It seeks to provide support for a humane Christian life in a pluralistic society, through a spirituality and teaching ministry emphasizing the biblical notion of a covenant (V), pursuit of “everyday holiness,” and an apostolic mindset. Its goal is ultimately to t…

Calvary

(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in other European languages. It is based on the Latin noun calvaria, “cranium, skull,” which makes its first appearance in the middle of the 1st century ce in medical works (Aurelius Cornelius Celsus,…

Nazarener

(953 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred | Jung, Martin H. | McKinley, Edward H. | Bringmann, Michael
[English Version] I. Brüder von der Buße Brüder von der Buße (Büßer Jesu von Nazareth, Scalzetti [=  Barfüßer], Nazareni, Ordo Poenitentium a Jesu Nazareno, OPoen), 1752 in Salamanca durch den Spanier Juan Alonso Varela y Losada (1724–1769) gegründet; den Franziskanern nach Regel, Einrichtung und Tracht ähnlicher, kontemplativ-eremitisch geprägter Bettelorden, tätig in Volksmission und Armenfürsorge (bis 1854 viertes Gelübde: Verteidigung der Unbefleckten Empfängnis Mariä); v.a. in Italien, aber auch …

Nazarenes

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred | Jung, Martin H. | McKinley, Edward H. | Bringmann, Michael
[German Version] I. Brothers of Penitence The order of the Brothers of Penitence (Penitents of Jesus of Nazareth, Scalzetti [= Barefoot Friars], Nazareni, Ordo Poenitentium a Jesu Nazareno, OPoen) was founded by the Spaniard Juan Alonso Varela y Losada (1724–1769) in Salamanca in 1752. It was a contemplative and hermetic mendicant order, similar to the Franciscans in rule, organization, and habit, and active in the mission to the people and care of the poor (with a fourth vow until 1854: defense of th…
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