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Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in the lagoon 8 km to the north of Marsala, modern Mozia on San Pantaleo. With Solus and Panormus, M. was the last fortress held by the Phoenicians in their retreat from the Greeks in western Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,6; own coins inscribed in Greek and Phoenician in the 5th and 4th cents. BC: HN 157f.) and was conquered and destroyed by Dionys…

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Phoenicussa, Phoenicodes

(107 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φοινικοῦσσα/ Phoinikoûssa, Φοινικώδης/ Phoinikṓdēs, Latin Phoenicusa). The sixth of the Aeoliae Insulae in Plin. HN 3,94, modern Filicudi, between the islands of Aliculi in the west and Salina in the east. The date-palm island (φοῖνιξ/ phoînix, Aristot. Mir. 132; Str. 6,2,11) was used for pasture, but at times was settled: a prehistorical settlement has been discovered on Cape Graziano in the east of P., and also numerous graves of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Below sea-level there are remains of buildings surviving from various eras. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) F…

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Mons Neptunius

(49 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Mountain range in north-eastern Sicily (Solin. 5,12), modern Monti Peloritani, named after the Temple of Poseidon which the mythical hunter Orion [1] is said to have erected on Mt. Pelorias (Hes. in Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Eryce

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐρύκη; Erýkē). Town in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐ., s.v. Παλική), located most probably in the mountainous area [1] of Ramacca [2]. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…
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