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Griechische orthodoxe Kirche

(813 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
Eine Griechische Orthodoxe Kirche (= GOK) im strengen Sinne gibt es erst seit 1833, als sich die Kirche in Griechenland aus der Jurisdiktion Konstantinopels löste bzw. seit 1850, als das Patriarchat die kirchliche Unabhängigkeit (Autokephalie) der GOK anerkannte. Bis dahin hatte Griechenland dem Ökumenischen Patriarchat Konstantinopel unterstanden ( Orthodoxe Kirchen), mit Thessaloniki aber den nach Konstantinopel zweitwichtigsten Bischofssitz im Bereich des Patriarchats gestellt.Nach der 1460 im Wesentlichen abgeschlossenen osman. Eroberung (Expansionen 2…
Date: 2019-11-19

Greek Orthodox Church

(856 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
A Greek Orthodox Church in the strict sense has existed only since 1833, when the church in Greece withdrew from the jurisdiction of Constantinople or since 1850, when the patriarchate recognized the ecclesiastical independence (autocephaly) of the Greek Orthodox Church. Until then Greece had been subject to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Orthodox churches), though the see of Thessaloniki was second only to Constantinople in importance within the purview of the patriarchate.After the Ottoman conquest (Expansionism 2.), essentially completed in 14…
Date: 2019-10-14

Orthodoxe Kirchen

(5,865 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
1. AllgemeinAls »orth.« (»rechtgläubig«) und gleichzeitig als »kath.« (»allumfassend«) bezeichneten sich bis zur Reformation sowohl die K. des Ostens als auch die des Westens. Noch bis zum Anfang des 20. Jh.s sprach man in der Regel von der »Orth.-Kath. K. des Morgenlandes«. Die allmähliche Fixierung auf das Wort »orth.« in der Selbstbezeichnung der hier behandelten K. hat sich auch nicht überall durchgesetzt, z. B. nicht in der »Apostolischen K. des Ostens« und der »Armen. Apostolischen K.«.Meinte »orth.« ursprünglich v. a. die reichsrechtlich verbindliche Rechtgläu…
Date: 2019-11-19

Proskomide

(308 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] In the Orthodox Church, the proskomide (from Gk προσκομιδή, “offering”) is a ceremony preceding the Divine Liturgy (Liturgy: VI; see also Eucharist: III, 3), in which the eucharistic offerings (leavened bread made of wheat flour and wine mixed with water) are prepared. Its other name, prothesis (πρόϑεσις), reflects its connection with the Old Testament bread of the Presence. Originally the rite was performed by deacons in the skeuophylakion (sacristy); today the proskomide is performed by the priest in the sanctuary or in a s…

Divinization,

(400 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] also termed “deification” (Gk θέωσις/ théōsis) is a concept that goes back to ancient Platonic and Neoplatonic philosophy, and was adopted early in orthodox theology on the basis of Pauline (2 Cor 5:17; Gal 2:20; 3:26f.) and Johannine (John 14:23; 17:21) affirmations, and especially on the basis of 2 Pet 1:4. Divinization occupies a central place in the orthodox doctrine of redemption. It is founded on the Christ event, for in Christ, human nature is divinized by its union with the divine nature (Dam. Fid. IV 9). For this reason, the doctr…

Svetlov, Pavel Yakovlevich

(272 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1861, Svyatoe Ozero, Ryazan’ Oblast – Nov 26, 1941, Irpen’), archpriest, professor of apologetics at the University of Kiev (not at a seminary). As one of the most creative theologians of the period of awakening prior to 1917 and the first among strictly academic theologians to oppose the ideas of A. Ritschl, he argued for discarding a onesidedly juridical doctrine of redemption; in later years, he sought to protect the doctrine from the opposite extreme of a purely subjec…

Lebedev, Aleksey Petrovič

(183 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1845, Governorate of Moscow – Jul 14, 1908, Moscow), earned his Dr.theol. at the Moscow Spiritual Academy (Moscow: II) in 1879 with a dissertation on “The Ecumenical Councils of the 4th and 5th Centuries.” He was professor of the history of the Early Church at the Academy from 1874 to 1896 and accepted an appointment at the University of Moscow in 1908. Lebedev is one of the most prominent representatives of the Historical School of Russian theology (A. Gorsky). In his patristic …

Dmitrievsky, Aleksei Afanasevich

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Mar 11, 1856, Gouvernement Astrachan' – Aug 10, 1929, Leningrad) was the most important representative of Russian critical study of the liturgy. After training and teaching in the Kazan' Spiritual Academy, he was professor of liturgics ¶ and Christian archaeology at the Spiritual Academy of Kiev (1884–1907). His life's work was devoted to the sifting and editing of Greek and Slavic manuscripts of liturgical texts, leading to the three-volume “Description of the Liturgical Manuscripts Preserved in the Libraries of the Orthodox East” ( Opisanie liturgičes kich …

Panichida

(149 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] The word panichida is based on the Greek παννυχίς/ pannychís (“all night [ sc. service]”); in the Russo-Slavic church, it refers to what the Greek church calls a parastas (from παράστασις/ parastasis), a memorial service. It is modeled on the structure of Matins (Orthros: Worship: II, 7). Very popular with Orthodox churchgoers, today it is a comparatively short (and often further abbreviated) memorial service for the liturgical commemoration of the dead (Memorials to the dead), leading up to a prayer to God for…

Karabinov, Ivan Alekseevič

(159 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (born 1878, declared missing in the 1930s) was associate professor at the Clerical Academy of St. Petersburg from 1911 onward. As a liturgical scholar with a strict historical-critical orientation, he interpreted the early Christian Eucharist (Eucharist/Communion: III, 3) as in essence a sacrifice of prayer and praise. The Words of Institution and the epiclesis, on the other hand, he viewed as relatively late, albeit indisputably appropriate expansions of the original order. Karab…

Chrysostom Liturgy,

(216 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] since the 11/12th century, the most important order of the liturgy in Constantinople, which widely superseded the liturgy of St. Basil, which was celebrated only ten times a year, after adopting many of the latter's features. A redaction of an Antiochene precursor to the Chrysostom Liturgy, or its silent prayers, by John Chrysostom cannot be ruled out in view of numerous points of agreement with his work, though not to the extent evidenced in the Liturgy of Sa…

Gavriil

(133 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Petrov; May 18, 1730, Moscow – Jan 26, 1801, Novgorod). In 1763 Gavriil became bishop of Tver; in 1770 he became archbishop of St. Petersburg and Reval (Tallinn) and in 1775 archbishop of Novgorod and St. Petersburg. In 1783 he became metropolitan (from 1799 to 1800 of Novgorod only). Trained in the spirit of the theologian Feofan Prokopovich, he lived the life of a strictly ascetic monk. He brought Russian theology back to the sources, embodying the liturgical and ascetic experience of orthodoxy by publishing the Philocalia , translated into Chu…

Macarius of Antioch

(211 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Makarios, birth name Ioannis; born in Aleppo), Orthodox patriarch from 1641 to 1688. After the death of his wife, Macarius became priest, then bishop of Beroea (Aleppo). He was given the name Macarius in 1641 upon becoming patriarch of Antioch (with see in Damascus). He is noteworthy for his journeys to Moscow, during which he solicited financial assistance. An account of his first journey (1652–1656) through Turkey, Moldavia, Walachia, the Ukraine, and Russia was written by his …

Zeon

(130 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] (griech. το` ζε´οn̆, »das Heiße, Kochende«), heißes Wasser, das in der byz. Liturgie (: VI.) dem konsekrierten Wein unmittelbar vor der Kommunion beigemischt wird, um ihn auf die Temperatur lebenspendenden Blutes zu erwärmen. Der Ritus gehört zu den wenigen, denen niemals eine praktische Notwendigkeit zugrunde lag. In Konstantinopel 582 erstmals bezeugt, war er früher schon in der syr. Kirche geübt worden. Nikolaos  Kabasilas sieht in ihm die Herabkunft des Hl. Geistes auf die Kirc…

Petr

(173 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Petr, Metropolit (Metr.) von Kiev und der ganzen Rus', erster Metropolit von Moskau (vor 1275 Wolhynien – 21.12.1326 Moskau). 1308 sollte er auf Betreiben des Fürsten Jurij von Galicˇ in Konstantinopel zum Metr. von Galicˇ geweiht werden, wurde aber statt dessen als Metr. von Kiev eingesetzt. Sein Vorgänger Maksim hatte den Sitz des Metr. von Kiev nach Vladimir verlegt; P. begab sich indessen, um den ständigen Anfeindungen der über Vladimir gebietenden Großfürsten von Tver' auszuweichen, unt…

Icons

(1,605 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Technique and Material – III. Theological Basis – IV. History I. Terminology The word icon, from Gk εἰκών/ eikṓn (“image, likeness”), is usually associated with egg-tempera paintings on a primed wood panel, used in the cult of the Eastern Orthodox churches (i.e. the churches that have accepted the Council of Chalcedon, but also a few pre-Chalcedonian churches such as the Coptic [Copts] and ¶ Ethiopian Orthodox Churches). Pictures are called icons only if they authentically represent a kind of sacramen…

Panichida

(121 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Panichida, orthodox. Das von dem griech. παn̆n̆υχι´ς/pannychi´s (»ganznächtlicher [Gottesdienst]«) gebildete Wort bez. im russ.-slaw. Bereich den im Griech. Parastas (παρα´στασις) genannten, in seiner Struktur dem Morgengottesdienst (Orthros; Gottesdienst: II.,7.) nachgebildeten, heute in der Regel vergleichsweise kurzen, oft auch noch zusätzlich gekürzten, bei den orth. Gläubigen überaus beliebten Gottesdienst zum liturgischen Totengedenken, der in der Bitte um »ewiges Gedenken« Gottes für den ode…

Vigil

(452 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Vigil, eigentlich ein Begriff der westlichen Liturgiewiss., bez. Gottesdienste in der Nacht vor großen Festen. Die häufige Erwähnung von nächtlichem Wachen und Gebet im NT (Mt 14,23; 26,41 par.; Apg 16,25; Kol 4,2 u. ö.) hat entsprechende liturgische Praktiken hervorgerufen, soweit sie sie nicht bereits selbst widerspiegelt. In altkirchl. Zeit bezeugt Tertullian u.a. die Übung gemeinsamer nächtlicher Gebetsversammlungen (Tert., Ad uxorem, II 4,2). Auch Cyprian von Karthago erwähnt das nächtliche Gebet (Cyp.dom.orat. 35). …

Theodoros

(87 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] von Andida gilt als Vf. eines Liturgiekomm., den vermutlich sein Vorgänger als Bf. von Andida, Nikolaos, vor 1067 vf. und den Th. lediglich zu Anfang des 12.Jh. überarbeitet hat. In diesem Komm. wird erstmals die Göttliche Liturgie (Gottesdienst: II.,7.) als konsequente Darstellung des Lebens Jesu von seiner Geburt bis zur Himmelfahrt ausgelegt. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography R. Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la Divine Liturgie du VII e au XV e siècle, 1966 P. Plank (LThK 3 9, 2000, 1409).

Rubljov

(238 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Rubljov, Andrej (um 1360 – vor 1427 Moskau), Heiliger der Russ. Orth. Kirche, größter russ. Ikonenmaler (Ikone/Ikonenmalerei, s. dort Abb.3), Mönch des Moskauer Andronikov-Klosters. R. war 1405 beteiligt an der Ausmalung der Verkündigungs-Kathedrale des Moskauer Kreml' und deren Ikonostase, 1408 der Freskierung der Kathedrale von Vladimir an der Kljazma und der Gestaltung ihrer Ikonostase sowie des Andronikov-Klosters in Moskau. Die Synode »Stoglav« von 1551 bestimmte, Ikonen der …
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