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Theages

(136 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Θεάγης; Theágēs). Pseudepigraphical author of a work in the style of Pythagoras, Περὶ ἀρετῆς ( Perì aretês, 'On Virtue', two frr. in Stob. 3,76-81 and 81-84 Hense), 1st cent. BC/2nd cent. AD. A T. is mentioned in Iambl. VP 257 and 261 (based on Apollonius [14] of Tyana), not as a Pythagorean, however, but as one of the Thousand of Croton who took part in the democratic revolution against the Pythagoreans, although he was very close to the latter ( ibid. 255). He is also missing in Iamblichus' catalogue of Pythagoreans. The two surviving fragments are strongl…

Pythagorean pseudepigrapha

(466 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] An abundance of writings, for the most part surviving only fragmentarily, which purport to originate from the defunct tradition of the Pythagorean School; they were published under the name of an ancient Pythagorean, but are in fact of later origin. They are to be distinguished (1) from a very small number of genuine fragments of Philolaus [2] and of Archytas [1] and (2) perhaps from a number of Pythagoreanizing fragments which are not pseudonymous but represent an attempt in the …

Ocellus

(481 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Ὄκελλος; Ókellos) from Lucania (Ocellus Lucanus); Pythagorean, unless the accounts about his brother and sister (Iambl. VP 267) are fictitious. Also the pseudonymous author of Doric texts from c. 100 BC. A letter to Plato (Diog. Laert. 8,80) with the faked authorship of Archytas (Ps.- Archytas [2]) lists the following works by O.: (1) On Law, (2) On Kingship, (3) On Piety, (4) On the origin of the universe. The letter was obviously meant to guarantee the authenticity of these writings. A fragment of (1) is transmitted in Stob. 1,13,2 p. 139 W.; …

Scepticism

(2,040 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] I. Definition The modern term 'sceptic' normally refers to someone who believes that in general, we know nothing with any degree of certainty or in any case nothing about the world beyond our own consciousness. There were sceptics in this sense already in Antiquity: Metrodorus [1] of Chios (4th cent. BC), a Democritean, maintained that we know nothing at all, not even whether or not we know anything, or what knowledge (εἰδέναι/ eidénai) is, or whether anything exists at all (70 B 1 DK). The Cyrenaics were of the opinion that although we are aware of o…

Moderatus

(215 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Μοδέρατος/ Modératos) of Gades. Neo-Pythagorean, middle of the 1st cent. AD. He was the author of a work consisting of eleven books on the Pythagoreans (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 48), on which, it seems, all accounts about him are based. M. makes a sharper distinction than Numenius [6] does between Pythagoras and Plato, whom he (like Aristotle, Speusippus, Xenocrates and Aristoxenus) accused of appropriating Pythagorean ideas in such a way that made it easy for later authors not to …

Diotogenes

(117 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] Name uncertain, missing in Iamblichus' Pythagorean catalogue (v. P. 267), also in Photius' catalogue of Stobaeus' philosophical sources (Bibl. c. 167,114a-b). Author of pseudo-Pythagorean treatises on kingship and piety, fragments of which can be found in Stobaeus. The date of their composition is a matter of dispute. There is no indication in the treatise on kingship which would indicate a reference to the Principate; nor is there an attempt to legitimize monarchy as part of the …

Epoche

(163 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (ἐποχή; epochḗ). Expression used in sceptic philosophy (Sext. Emp. P.H. 1,196), meaning that the sceptic suspends judgement or refrains from a particular notion (ἐπέχειν; epéchein). A sceptic refrains from judgement, not only because it is not proven that a certain notion is true, but also because there is not a single reason for its acceptance, which was not opposed by a different reason. Later sceptics distinguish between various kinds of ‘assent’ ─ and thus of epochḗ ─, in order to say that in some sense, sceptics always refrain from assent, but in an…

Eclecticism

(346 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] The eclecticists are a school of philosophers documented in one source only (Diog. Laert. 2,12). Their founder, Potamon of Alexandria, taught that the aim was to select the most plausible teachings of the various schools. In the same manner, Galenos refused to identify with any branch of philosophy or medicine (De libris propriis 1; De dignot. affect. 8). Modern research often refers to eclecticism, most of all in respect of the philosophy of the early Imperial period. This often …

Pyrrho

(514 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Πύρρων/ Pýrrhōn) of Elis c. 365 - c. 275 BC; left no written work. He accompanied Alexander [4] the Great on the campaign to India, where he is said to have met the gymnosophists (Diog. Laert. 9,61). P. owes his place in the history of philosophy to the fact that Pyrrhonian skeptics, beginning with Aenesidemus, referred to him (Scepticism). P. was long considered the founder of the Pyrrhonian school. However, Cicero speaks repeatedly of P., Ariston [7] and Herillus as representatives of…

Neopythagoreanism

(486 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] Modern collective term for a several very different philosophical schools of the late Hellenistic and early Imperial period (after the late 1st cent. BC). All these schools based their teachings on Pythagoras – either of tradition or legend – although some of them focused more on purely philosophical aspects of his doctrine, whereas others emphasised practical and ethical aspects, sometimes in conjunction with a religious motivation and an interest in the arcane arts. When Plato a…

Aenesidemus [of Cnossus]

(418 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Αἰνησίδημος; Ainēsídēmos) [of Cnossus] Originally a member of the Academy (Phot. 212, 169 b 33) and the founder of Pyrrhonism. The exact dates of his life are disputed, but A.'s critique of the Academy points to the beginning of the 1st cent. BC.The fact that Cicero does not mention him and deems Pyrrho's philosophy dead is not significant as long as we clearly distinguish between Pyrrho and Pyrrhonism. None of A.'s writings survive, but Phot. 212 presents a summary of ‘Pyrrhonian…

Soul, theory of the

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] A. Concept of the soul In order to understand the concept and the theory of the soul ('psychology': λόγος/ lógos, 'theory', from ψυχή/ psychḗ, 'soul') in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, it is important to distinguish between two ways of perceiving the soul: the soul as an essential component of a human being, as the subject of thinking and feeling, which controls one's behaviour, and the soul as the general quality that infuses a living thing with life. The first view is based on the perception of the soul ( psychḗ) as an individual's shadowy doppelgänger, which separates itself…

Eklektizismus

(313 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] Die Eklektiker sind eine nur an einer Stelle (Diog. Laert. 2,12) belegte Philosophenschule. Ihr Gründer Potamon von Alexandreia lehrte, es gelte, die jeweils glaubwürdigsten Lehren der verschiedenen Schulen auszusuchen. Auf vergleichbare Weise weigerte sich Galenos, sich mit irgendeiner Richtung der Philos. oder Medizin zu identifizieren (De libris propriis 1; De dignot. affect. 8). Die moderne Forsch. spricht häufig von E. vor allem in der Philos. der frühen Kaiserzeit. Dies erw…

Epoche

(148 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] (ἐποχή). Skeptischer Ausdruck (S. Emp. P.H. 1,196), der besagt, daß der Skeptiker sich des Urteils enthält bzw. sich einer Vorstellung versagt (ἐπέχειν). Der Skeptiker enthält sich des Urteils, weil nicht nur nicht erwiesen ist, daß eine Vorstellung wahr ist, sondern es auch keinen Grund zu ihrer Annahme gibt, dem nicht ein anderer Grund entgegenstünde. Spätere Skeptiker unterscheiden auf verschiedene Weise Bedeutungen von “Zustimmung”, und damit von epochḗ, um sagen zu können, daß sich der Skeptiker in gewissem Sinne immer der Zustimmung enthä…

Pyrrhon

(484 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] (Πύρρων) aus Elis, ca. 365-ca. 275 v. Chr.; hinterließ keine Schriften. Begleitete Alexandros [4] d. Gr. auf dem Zug nach Indien, wo er die Gymnosophisten getroffen haben soll (Diog. Laert. 9,61). P. verdankt seine Stellung in der Philosophiegesch. der Tatsache, daß die pyrrhoneischen Skeptiker seit Ainesidemos sich auf ihn beriefen (Skeptizismus). Lange wurde P. als Gründer der pyrrhon. Schule betrachtet. Noch Cicero aber spricht wiederholt von P., Ariston [7] und Herillos als V…

Ainesidemos [von Knossos]

(363 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] Ursprünglich Akademiker (Phot. 212, 169 b 33), Begründer des Pyrrhonismus. Seine genaue Lebenszeit ist umstritten; seine Kritik an der Akademie verweist auf den Beginn des 1. Jh. v. Chr. Daß Cicero ihn nicht erwähnt und die Philos. Pyrrhons totsagt, heißt nichts, wenn wir klar zwischen Pyrrhon und Pyrrhonismus unterscheiden. Schriften sind nicht erh., aber Phot. 212 bietet einen Abriß der “Pyrrhonischen Darlegungen”. Danach greift A. die Akademiker an, die dogmatisch behaupten, n…

Okellos

(437 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] (Ὄκελλος) aus Lukania (Ocellus Lucanus); Altpythagoreer, falls die Nachrichten über Bruder und Schwester (Iambl. v.P. 267) nicht ihrerseits fiktiv sind. Ferner pseudonymer Verf. von Schriften auf Dorisch, ca. 100 v.Chr. Ein auf Archytas (Ps.- Archytas [2]) gefälschter Brief an Platon (Diog. Laert. 8,80) nennt als seine Werke (1) ‘Über das Gesetz, (2) ‘Über das Königtum, (3) ‘Über die Frömmigkeit, (4) ‘Über das Werden des Alls. Offenkundig soll der Brief die Echtheit dieser Schrif…

Neupythagoreismus

(466 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] Moderner Sammelbegriff für eine Reihe recht unterschiedlicher Strömungen in der Philos. des späten Hell. und der frühen Kaiserzeit (ab Ende des 1. Jh.v.Chr.), denen gemein ist, daß sie auf den Pythagoras der Trad. bzw. der Legende zurückgreifen, dabei jedoch verschiedene Aspekte des überkommenen Pythagorasbildes betonen: en…

Pythagoreische Pseudepigraphen

(414 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] Eine Fülle von Schriften, meist nur fr. überliefert, die vorgeben, aus der erloschenen pythagoreischen Schul-Trad. (Pythagoreische Schule) hervorzugehen; sie sind unter dem Namen eines alten Pythagoreers veröffentlicht, aber tatsächlich späteren Ursprungs. Zu unterscheiden sind sie (1) von einigen sehr wenigen echten Fr. des Philolaos [2] und des Archytas [1] und (2) vielleicht von einigen pythagoreisierenden Fr., die nicht pseudonym sind, sondern den Versuch hell. Zeit repräsent…

Diotogenes

(108 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[English version] Name unsicher, er fehlt in Iamblichos' Pythagoreerkatalog (v. P. 267) und Photios' Katalog der philos. Quellen des Stobaios (bibl. c. 167,114a-b). Autor von ps.-pythagoreischen Traktaten über das Königtum und die Frömmigkeit; Fragmente davon finden sich bei Stobaios. Deren Ursprungszeit ist umstritt…
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