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Uhlich, Leberecht

(154 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1799, Köthen – Mar 23, 1872, Magdeburg). While a pastor in Pömmelte (today Schönebeck district, Saxony-Anhalt), in 1841 Uhlich founded the Protestantische Freunde (Lichtfreunde), a collective movement of theological Rationalism, and led the opposition to the restorative ecclesiastical policies of King Frederick William IV. In 1845 Uhlich was called to a pastorate in Magdeburg, but he was removed from office in 1847. The Free Congregation he led had a great many members for a while, but its impor…

Schwartz, Josua

(156 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 7, 1632, Waldau, Pomerania [today Wałdowo, Poland] – Jan 6, 1709, Rendsburg). ¶ After studying at Wittenberg and extensive educational travel, Schwartz was appointed lecturer and pastor in Lund in 1668; in 1680 he became German court chaplain in Copenhagen and in 1684 royal general superintendent of the duchy of Schleswig, to which the duchy of Holstein was added in 1689 (Schleswig-Holstein). Schwartz was best known as a theological controversialist defending Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). …

Grabe, Johannes Ernst

(167 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1666, Królewiec [Ger. Königsberg], Poland – Nov 14, 1711, in or near London), a Lutheran and, later, an Anglican theologian. As a church historian in Königsberg, Grabe had been led by the crypto-Catholic circles that arose out of syncretism (VI; G. Calixtus) to doubt the legitimacy of the Lutheran Church. Moved by the arguments of P.J. Spener and following the suggestion of D.E. Jablonski, he joined the Anglican Church in 1697 and emigrated to Oxford, where he became Dr.t…

Dieterich, Johann Konrad

(154 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1575, Gemünden an der Wohra – Mar 22, 1639, Ulm). Dieterich's most influential work, the Institutiones catecheticae (1613; ¶ over 40 editions by 1700), was written during his time as professor of ethics in Gießen and rector of the Pedagogium (from 1605). It is regarded as a representative textbook of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). As cathedral preacher and superintendent in the imperial city of Ulm, …

May, Johann Heinrich

(138 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Majus; the Elder; Feb 5, 1653, Pforzheim – Sep 3, 1719, Gießen). As an orientalist, May received an appointment at the University of Gießen in 1688, thanks to the support of P.J. Spener. He quickly rose to court chaplain, professor of theology, and superintendent, and in 1695, after fierce controversies, he was able to lead the university to Pietism. He promoted the exegetical orientation of academic studies, as well as the toleration of Jews (out of interest in mission). With hi…

Jorissen, Matthias

(330 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1739, Wesel – Jan 13, 1823, The Hague). Jorissen, a merchant's son, studied Reformed theology in Duisburg and Utrecht from 1759. His older relative, G. Tersteegen, and the leader of the revivalists in the Lower Rhine, S. Collenbusch, had more influence on his development than did his academic teachers. After delivering a harangue as a candidate in his home town in 1768 and coming into conflict with the city council, he could no longer hope for a position in Prussia. So he served in various parish offices in the Netherlands: from 1769 in Avesathen, ¶ Gelderland, from …

Ernst von Hessen-Rheinfels

(156 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1623, Kassel – May 12, 1693, Cologne). Reared strictly in the Reformed tradition as the son of Landgrave Moritz v. Hessen-Kassel, Ernst converted to the Catholic Church and (alongside the governing of his small principality on the middle Rhine) devoted himself thereafter, through his own writings and an extensive correspondence (with G.W. Leibniz, P.J. Spener, J.-B. Bossuet, et al.), to the project of uniting all confessions. He proposed an international court and was opposed to any kind of compulsory belief. Martin Friedrich Bibliography H. Raab, “Der ‘D…

Schartau, Henrik

(88 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1757, Malmö – Feb 3, 1825, Lund), pastor in Lund from 1785, afterward provost and rural dean. As a pastor and preacher, he left his mark on a whole generation of clergy. Through them and his posthumously published works, he initiated a revival movement in western Sweden that is still vital today, combining the penitential rigor of Pietism with the churchliness of orthodox Lutheranism. Martin Friedrich Bibliography W. v. Kloeden, BBKL IX, 1995, 9–11 A. Jarlert, Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon XXXI, 2002, 466–473.

Schröder

(116 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[English Version] Schröder, Joachim (9.3.1613 Freudenberg bei Ribnitz – 1.6.1677 Rostock), seit 1637 Prediger am Hospital St. Georg in Rostock, 1668 aus gesundheitlichen Gründen emeritiert. Mit seinen Kollegen J. Quistorp d.J., H. Müller und Th. Großgebauer vertrat Sch. das Kirchenreformprogramm der Rostocker luth. Orthodoxie (: II.,2., a). Als Theologe blieb er hinter diesen zurück, popularisierte aber in zahlreichen Schriften die Forderungen nach strengerer Kirchenzucht und Heiligung im Leben. Er…

Ulstadius

(124 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[English Version] Ulstadius, Lars (Laurentius; ca.1650 Oulu – 6.10.1732 Stockholm). Beeinflußt von der Lektüre V. Weigels und anderer Spiritualisten (Spiritualismus) gab U. 1682 sein Amt als Lehrer auf und griff 1688 mit einer Gottesdienststörung im Dom von Åbo die luth. Lehre als falsch an. U. wurde zum Tode, 1693 zu lebenslanger Haft verurteilt und blieb auch nach der Begnadigung 1719 im Gefängnis, von den radikalen Pietisten in Schweden wie ein Märtyrer verehrt. Durch seine Anhänger (Petrus Schä…

Discipline

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religious discipline 1.1. General considerationsIn the modern period there is an evident increased effort in all confessions to subject the lives of the faithful to Christian norms. Research into confessionalization was for a long time limited to church discipline (Ger. Kirchenzucht , Fr. discipline ecclésiastique), equating it with social discipline[10] or placing it in parallel with state defense against criminality. It is only recently that the aspects of “self-regulation” have been emphasized [11] and discipline has been classified with church efforts towards…
Date: 2019-10-14

Disziplin

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religiöse Disziplin 1.1. AllgemeinesIn der Nz. zeigt sich in allen Konfessionen ein gesteigertes Bestreben, das Leben der Gläubigen christl. Normen zu unterwerfen. Die Forschung zur Konfessionalisierung war lange auf Kirchenzucht (engl. church discipline oder Christian discipline, franz. discipline ecclésiastique) verengt und setzte diese mit Sozialdisziplinierung gleich [10. 502] oder parallelisierte sie der staatlichen Kriminalitätsabwehr. Erst neuerdings werden die Aspekte der »Selbstregulierung« betont [11. 680] und die Zucht in das kirchliche Bemühen…
Date: 2019-11-19

Petri

(518 words)

Author(s): Jarlert, Anders | Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] 1. Olaus (Jan 6, 1493, Örebro – Apr 19, 1552, Stockholm), elder brother of Laurentius and first Protestant archbishop in Sweden. After studying at Uppsala and Leipzig, he received his M.A. from Wittenberg in 1518. He became a deacon in 1520 and was appointed chancellor by Mattias Gregersson, bishop of Strängnäs, who was executed during the Stockholm Bloodbath. In 1524 Petri was appointed city clerk and preacher in Stockholm; from 1531 to 1533 he served as chancellor to King Gustav. He was ordained in 1539. On Jan 2, 1540, ¶ he and Laurentius Andreae were condemned to d…

Petri

(428 words)

Author(s): Jarlert, Anders | Friedrich, Martin
[English Version] 1.Olaus (6.1.1493 Örebro – 19.4.1552 Stockholm), älterer Bruder von 2., dem ersten ev. Erzbf. Schwedens. P. studierte in Uppsala und Leipzig, 1518 M.A. in Wittenberg, 1520 Diakon, Kanzler des Bf. Mattias von Strängnäs, der beim Blutbad in Stockholm hingerichtet wurde, 1524 Stadtsekretär und Prediger in Stockholm, 1531–1533 Kanzler König Gustavs, 1539 ordiniert, am 2.1.1540 zus. mit Laurentius Andreae wegen Majestätsverbrechen zum Tode verurteilt, gegen Strafgelder begnadigt, 1543…

Reformation

(10,690 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historischer Überblick 1.1. Begriff und neuzeitliche DeutungR. (von lat. reformatio, ›Wiederherstellung‹, ›Umgestaltung‹) ist seit der Mitte des 19. Jh.s spezieller Terminus für die eine Seite jener Vorgänge, durch die im 16. Jh. die westl. Christenheit in mehrere einander antagonistische Konfessionskirchen auseinandertrat; sein Antonym, welches die andere Seite bezeichnet, ist Gegen-R.Zuvor hatte der Begriff die allgemeine Bedeutung von Reform. So begegnet reformatio bzw. die zugrundeliegende verbale Form reformare in den kirchl. und polit. Reformbewegungen…
Date: 2019-11-19
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