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Hostilius

(1,203 words)

Author(s): Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Old Latin family name, whose origin is unexplained; in inscriptions also Hostillius and Hostilus [1. 30; 175]. The great age of the name is shown by the third Roman king Tullus H. [4] and names such as Curia Hostilia, Lares Hostilii and the goddess Hostilina. In historical times, the family was Plebeian and, from the 2nd cent. BC, politically active, particularly in the Tubuli and Mancini branches; it died out at the end of the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] H. Praetor and people's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC Praetor or people's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC (?), had a lex Hostilia passed, w…

Ligurius

(112 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Uncommon gentilicium name that is unlikely to be related to the tribe of the Ligures and that is epigraphically attested during the Republic in Rome (CIL I2 1092) and Praeneste (CIL I2 1449). [German version] [1] L., A. Friend of Caesar and the brothers of Cicero, died in 47 BC Friend of Caesar and the brothers of Cicero (Cic. Att. 11,9,2), died during the Civil War in 47 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,18,3f.). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L., Cn. Military tribune in 197 BC Fell in 197 BC as military tribune in the battle against the Ligurians in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 33,22,8). Frigo, Thomas (Bon…

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Matius

(507 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Matius, C. Friend of Cicero and Caesar, who sought to mediate between them in 53 BC. Contemporary and friend of Cicero (Cic. Fam. 11,27f.) and Caesar, who played a kind of mediating role between the two. In 53 BC he was in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 7,15,2) with Caesar, for whom M. remained a useful assistant even after the outbreak of the Civil War, although he tended to operate behind the scenes. In the summer of 47, M. was the addressee of the message announcing Caesar's victory at Zela, which became proverbial (‘I came, I saw, I conquered’: veni, vidi, vici, Plut. Caesar 50,3: the …

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Insteius

(401 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman gens, more frequently attested from the late Republic, though rooted in the early period of Rome as indicated by a street name, the vicus Instei(an)us on the southern peak of the Quirinal, the collis Latiaris (Varro, Ling. 5,52; Liv. 24,10,8). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] I., L. Fought in the Social War [3] in 89 BC, in 76 BC under Sertorius Served in the  Social War [3] in 89 BC under Cn. Pompeius Strabo outside Asculum (ILLRP 515); probably identical with the legate who fought on  Sertorius' side in Spain in 76 (Liv. 91, fr. 22: here also a C.I. as praefectus equitum, a broth…

Mevulanus, C.

(53 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] As military tribune of the consul C. Antonius [I 2] in 63 BC, he conspired with the Catilinarians ( Catilina) at Pisaurum (modern Pesaro). He was later attacked by the quaestor P. Sestius near Capua (Cic. Sest. 9; homonym: ILS 2994). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography MRR 2,170 Schulze, 215.

Laronius, Q.

(55 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] From Bruttium; in 36 BC, sent to Sicily with three legions by M. Vipsanius Agrippa [1] during the fighting against Sex. Pompeius to support Octavian, and afterwards acclaimed as imperator (CIL X 8041,18). Suffect consul in 33 with L. Vicinius (CIL I2 p. 66 = Fasti Venusini). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)

Nasidienus Rufus

(57 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Ridiculed by Horace (Hor. Sat. 2,8) as the nouveau riche host of a dinner for Maecenas [2] and his poet friends that, for all its opulence and refinement, ends in banal mishap. (The nomen gentile is attested in only one other place, on an inscription from Cologne: CIL XIII 8270). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)

Norbanus

(761 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from the Latin city of Norba [1] (‘man from Norba’). The family first attained Roman citizenship with N. [I 1], owing its advancement to Caesar and Augustus, and then disappeared. In the Imperial period N. was also a cognomen. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] N., C. Praetor 89 BC, homo novus Novus homo of non-Roman descent (the nomen gentile indicates origins from Norba [1]). As people's tribune in 103 BC and follower of L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, he brought a case against C. Servilius Caepio ( cos. 106) over the defeat at Arausio in …

Hortensia

(75 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Daughter of the famous orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus. She is praised for having inherited the abilities of her father (Val. Max. 8,3,3; Quint. Inst. 1,1,6). In 42 BC, H. appeared successfully in the forum as a spokesman for prosperous Roman women against an exceptional war tax imposed by the triumvirs (App. B Civ. 4,135-146). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography M. H. Dettenhofer, Frauen in polit. Krisen, in: Id. (ed.), Reine Männersache?, 1994, 140f.

Pheidippides

(176 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] (Φειδιππίδης; Pheidippídēs). Courier ( hēmeródromos) from Athens, who after the Persians' landing at Marathon (490 BC) was sent to the Lacedaemonians with a request for support troops (Hdt. 6,105f.; Persian Wars); haunted by a vision of Pan on Mount Parthenium in Arcadia, he reached Sparta on the second day (Hdt. 6,105f.). P. is encountered in the later tradition as Latin Phidippus (Nep. Miltiades 4,3) or Philippides (as in poorer manuscripts of Hdt. [1]; Plin. HN 7,84; Plut. Mor. 862a-b; Paus. 1,28,4; 8,54,6; Poll. 3,148; Solin. 1, 98; Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías) and u…

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Popular politician at the end of the 2nd cent. BC Popular politician at the end of the 2nd centur…

Labienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Nomen gentile of Etruscan origin; the family, which belonged to Rome's equestrian class, came from northern Picenum (Cic. Rab. perd. 22; Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). [German version] [1] L., Q. Slain in the Curia c. 100 BC Uncle of L. [3], supported L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus in 100 BC and was slain at his side in the Curia on the Forum Romanum (Cic. Rab. perd. 14; 18; 20-22; Oros. 5,17,9). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L. (Parthicus), Q. Commander in Asia Minor and Armenia c. 40 BC Son of L. [3]. At the end of 43 BC he undertook treaty negotiations at the behest of the m…

Mescinius

(101 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Roman gens, evident in the names of some individuals of the late Republican period, also in the Greak-speaking areas (CIL I2 2247). [German version] [1] M. Rufus, L. Quaestor 51 BC, assigned to Cicero in Cilicia In 51 BC, M was assigned as quaestor to the proconsul Cicero in Cilicia. Differences in their reports cast a shadow over their relations (Cic. Att. 6,3,1; 4,1; Cic. Fam. 5,20). Cicero attempted to cover up this resentment when he tried to win M. over as an adversary of Caesar (Cic. Fam. 5,21,1; 13,28,2). MRR 2,242. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography Schulze, 193, 272, 288.

Mescinius

(95 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Röm. Gens, aus der in spätrepublikanischer Zeit einige Namensträger - u.a. im griech. Raum (CIL I2 2247) - greifbar sind. [English version] [1] M. Rufus, L. Quaestor 51 v. Chr., dem Cicero in Cilicia zugeteilt In Cilicia 51 v.Chr. dem Proconsul Cicero als Quaestor zugeteilt. Spätestens die Differenzen in ihren Rechenschaftsberichten trübten das Verständnis zwischen beiden (Cic. Att. 6,3,1; 4,1; Cic. fam. 5,20). Diese Verstimmung wollte Cicero überspielen (Cic. fam. 5,21,1; 13,28,2), als er M. nach 49 auf den Kurs der Caesargegner einzustimmen trachtete. MRR 2,242. Frigo, Thomas (…

Laelius

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer vielleicht aus Campanien stammenden Familie. Die mil. Erfolge von L. [I 1] im 2. Pun. Krieg (218-201 v.Chr.) und die Verbindung zum Älteren Scipio verschafften ihr wohl das röm. Bürgerrecht und den Aufstieg in die Noblität. Eine jüngere Linie (Praenomen D.) gelangte erst unter Augustus zum Konsulat (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., C. Cos. 190 v. Chr., Altersgenosse des Scipio Africanus Geb um 235 v.Chr., gest. um 160; den polit. Aufstieg verdankte L. der engen (und sprichwörtlich gewordenen…

Nasidius

(158 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[English version] [1] N., L. Flottenkommandant des CN. Pompeius 49 v. Chr. Flottenkommandant des Cn. Pompeius. 49 v.Chr. mit einem Geschwader zur Unterstützung des L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus von Dyrrhachion nach Massalia entsandt (Caes. civ. 2,3,1f.); dort entzog sich N. einem Seegefecht gegen D. Iunius [I 12] Brutus Albinus kampflos gen Spanien (Caes. civ. 2,4,4f.; 7,1f.). Nach Einsätzen im Tyrrhenischen Meer (Bell. Afr. 98,1; Cic. Att. 11,17a,3) endete N. 46 mit den Pompeianern in Nordafrika. MRR 2, 271. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [English version] [2] N., Q. ab 38 v. Chr. Mar…

Marathonlauf

(344 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[English version] M. als agonistische Disziplin ist eine Erfindung der Neuzeit. Längere Laufwettbewerbe als den dólichos (max. 24 Stadien = ca. 4,6 km) kannte die Ant. nicht. So wie der dólichos urspr. im Kontext der Ausbildung von Meldeläufern ( hēmerodrómoi; dromokḗrykes) stand, gehörte auch der M. letztlich zur (mil.) Nachrichtenübermittlung. Die ant. Überl. zur Erzählung vom singulären M. nach der Perserschlacht (490 v.Chr.) ist dünn: Nach Plutarch (mor. 347c) lief ein athenischer Hoplit in Rüstung ( hoplítai ) vom Schlachtfeld bei Marathon nach …

Novius

(729 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Oskisches Praenomen, abgekürzt No., bezeugt für N. Calavius [2], den Verfertiger der Ficoronischen Ciste Novios Plautios (ILS 8562), und in weiteren Inschr. Seit dem 3. Jh.v.Chr. wohl in Campania bes. häufiges Gentiliz und von dort in den östl. Mittelmeerraum verbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Vertreter der lit. Atellana, frühes 1. Jh. v. Chr. Als Vertreter der lit. Atellana scheint N. vor Pomponius (dem Hauptvertreter der Gattung im frühen 1. Jh.v.Chr.) gewirkt zu haben (vgl. [4]). Da von über 40…
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