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Erythrae

(596 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
(Ἐρυθραί; Erythraí). [German version] [1] Boeot. city This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Boeotian city mentioned as early as Hom. Il. 2,499 (Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron range east of Plataeae and Hysiae. Other references: Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Xen. Hell. 5,4,49; Paus. 9,2,1. According to Str. 9,2,12 mother city of the Ionian E. [2]. Before the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) the Persian camp stretched along the Asopus from E. over …

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Halae

(855 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἁλαί; Halaí). ‘Salt pans’, name of several settlements, in Attica of two demes. [German version] [1] Att. deme of the phyle Cecropis H. Aixonides (Ἁλαὶ Αἰξωνίδες; Halaì Aixōnídes), Attic deme, which constituted together with Aexone the paralia trittys of the phyle Cecropis. Therefore, (only administratively? [3. 148476]) distinguished by ‘Aixonides’ from H. [2] on the east coast of Attica. H. provided six (ten)   bouleutaí . H. (modern Voula and Vouliagmeni [7. 466 fig. 588]) bordered in the north on Aexone (modern Glyphada) and in the…

Mycalessus

(226 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Μυκαλησσός; Mykalēssós). Town named in Hom. Il. 2,498 and Hom. H. Apollo 222-224 in northeast Boeotia on the road from Thebae to Chalcis [1] and to the south of the Aniforitis pass near present-day Rhitsona. References: Str. 9,2,11; 26; Stat. Theb. 7,272; 9,281; Nonnus. Dion. 13,77f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. A few wall remains [1] and a large necropolis used from the Geometric to the Hellenistic periods [2] testify to its heyday in…

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Hoplites

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὁπλίτης; Hoplítēs). [German version] [1] Town north-east of Sparta Town north-east of Sparta (Pol. 16,16,2), possibly named (‘warrior’) after the archaic cult statue of Apollo in nearby Thornax. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967, 521. [German version] [2] Small river in Boeotia Small river in Boeotia, whose localization near Haliartus or Coronea was already disputed in antiquity; associated with an oracle on the death of Lysander (Plut. Lysander 29,3ff.; Mor. 408A-B). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.…

Alalcomenae

(256 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀλαλκομεναί; Alalkomenaí). [German version] [1] Small Boeotian city Small Boeotian city on the southern edge of the former Lake  Copais, between  Haliartus and  Coronea at the foot of a low mountain, with the famous  Athena sanctuary on the plain by the Triton stream (birthplace of Athena), in direct proximity to the sanctuary of Athena Itonia. A. likely lay to the north below what is today Solinarion; the Athena sanctuary was either north-east near the church Agios Ioannis or north-west near Ajia Para…

Permessus

(169 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Περμησσός/ Permēssós; for different forms of the name [1. 869]). River mentioned as early as in Hes. Theog. 5, rising in the Helicon [1]; located variously by later ancient authors. Whereas according to Strabo (9,2,19; 9,2,30) the P. flowed into Lake Copais near Haliartus and hence - with reference to [2. 212f.] - is identified e.g. by [1] with the stream Zagora (modern Evangelistria), the rest of the ancient literary tradition (e.g. Nic. Ther. 12; Orph. A. 124; Prop. 2,10,26; Ver…

Hylice

(66 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὑλικὴ λίμνη; Hylikḕ límnē). Boeotian lake west of the Copais, north of Thebes (Str. 9,2,20). Probably the lake formerly called Likeri, and H. again today [2. 494f.; 3. 81f.]. Referring to Nicander (Theriaka 887ff.), Fossey [1. 225-229] identifies H. with the more northerly modern Lake Paralimni, usually equated with the ancient Trephia. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2 3 P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979.

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Boium

(139 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Βοιόν, Βοῖον; Boión, Boîon). City in Doris, belonging, along with Erineus, Cytenium and Acyphas, to the Doric tetrapolis of cities allegedly founded by Doris (Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; schol. Pind. Pyth. 121; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6). B. is still mentioned in the 6th cent. AD in Hierocles, Synekdemos 643,9. The only attested historical event was the Phocian attack of 458/7 BC (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4). Probab…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…

Chaeronea

(522 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Χαιρώνεια, Χηρώνια; Chairṓneia, Chērṓnia). Westernmost town of  Boeotia on the border to Phocis, located in the northern foothills of the Thurion range in the Cephissus valley near the modern C. (formerly Kapraina). Sources: Paus. 9,40,5-41,7; Str. 9,2,37. A prehistoric settlement has been found to the north-east on the banks of the Cephissus [2. 382f.], a Mycenaean chamber tomb close t…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…
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