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Xenagoras

(338 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ξεναγόρας/ Xenagóras). [German version] [1] Greek historian and geographer, probably in the 3rd cent. BC Greek historian and geographer probably in the 3rd cent. BC (X. FGrH 240), mentioned by Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,72,5 after Callias [10] [1. 912 f.]. It is unclear whether he was identical to X. from Heraclea [7], the father of Nymphis [1. 913; 2. 1410 f.]. He wrote a chronicle that included Egypt (F 1) and the west, esp. Sicily (F 12; 14; 15; 17; 18), probably Italy i.e. Rome as well (if F 29 is a part of the chronicle) in at least 4 bks. (title: Χρόνοι/ Chrónoi , FGrH 240 F 1). It cove…

Palindrome

(274 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] In literary theory a palindrome, corresponding to παλίνδρομος ( palíndromos, 'running backwards'), denotes a sequence of letters - a word, sentence or verse ( versus supinus, recurrens; [2. 278f.] on Mart. 2,86,1-2; cf. Sid. Epist. 9,14,4-6) - that can also be read backwards with the same or a different sense, occasionally resulting also in the same or a different verse. A palindrome in the strict sense corresponds to itself mirror-wise from the middle outwards. Thus in Late Antiquity 'crab verse' (καρκίνος/ karkínos or καρκινωτόν/ karkinōtón) was a familiar for…

Gnome

(3,863 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[1] Literary history I. Greek [German version] A. Meaning of the word As a nomen actionis the noun γνώμη (not found in Homer or Hesiod), with its originally extraordinary comprehensive range of meaning must be considered together with the verb γιγνώσκω ( gignṓskō) [11; 37. 491; 27. 32 (also with regard to etymology)]. The verb with its meanings ‘to recognize’, ‘to form an opinion’, ‘to decide’ and ‘to judge’ falls between two poles: ‘the ability to recognize a state of affairs’ and ‘the consequences of this recognition’ [40. 20-39, esp.…

Epitome

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich)
(ἐπιτομή; epitomḗ, Lat. epitoma and epitome) [German version] A. Definition Epitomḗ (from ἐπιτέμνειν; epitómnein, ‘abbreviate’, ‘cut to size’, Aristot. Soph. el. 174b 29; Theophr. Hist. pl. 6,6,6): as an ideal type, it is a form of reduced written text [10] somewhere between an excerpt and a paraphrase, generally of prose works (exception i.a. the lost Virgil epitomes [2]), and themselves written in prose (exception: Ausonius' Caesares). Extreme brevity is the declared aim of an epitome: decorative features of the original, such as speeches, or digressions, …

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Mandrobulus

(87 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μανδρόβουλος; Mandróboulos). The theophoric name is derived from ‘Mandrus, a - deduced - god of Asia Minor. A drama by Cleophon and a dialogue by Speusippus are named after M. The proverb ἐπὶ τὰ Μανδροβούλου χωρεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα was already no longer understood in antiquity; the ancient Paroimiographoi offered conjectures with regard to its explanation - as in Suda ε 2659, 2716 - presuming that it related to turns for the worse. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Mandroboulos, RE 14, 1039f.

Acrostich

(733 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀκροστιχίς ( akrostichís; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,6), ἀκροστίχιον ( akrostíchion; Or. Sib. 11, 17 and 23) and plur. τὰ ἀκρόστιχα ( tà akrósticha; as a heading: Anth. Pal. 9,385). Letters, syllables or words that start consecutive verses or especially lines of verse (ὁ στίχος, ho stíchos; verse, lines of prose), or strophes and form a meaningful connection. As a result of this feature the whole poem also came to be known as acrostich. If a vertical row of letters, highlighted i. a. by spacing, formed the acrostich, this was termed παραστιχίς ( parastichí…

Guido

(231 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] Latin author, identified as G. Pisanus ([4], a different view in [6]); c. 1119 he wrote an encyclopaedic compilation De variis historiis (‘On various historical matters’) in 6 books. For the sections Geographica and Descriptio totius maris he excerpted the  Geographus Ravennas, following him very closely. In the Geographica he copied the latter's personal reference to Ravenna as his hometown (Geographica 20,20), but apart from that, as evidence of his education, he displays his knowledge of Classical writers and historians, as …

Nymphodorus

(192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Νυμφόδωρος; Nymphódōros). [German version] [1] Greek author of travel literature from Syracusai, 3rd cent. BC Greek author of travel literature from Syracusae. Towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC, he wrote - presumably as entertainment - Períploi Asías (and Eurṓpēs?) which includes the story of the slave leader Drimacus (FGrH 572 F 4), and, probably separately, Perì tôn en Sikilíai thaumazoménōn (‘Wonders of Sicily). Paradoxographoi; Periplus Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography A. Giannini (ed.), Paradoxographorum Graecorum reliquiae, 1966, 112-115  Id., Studi su…

Cento

(1,514 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek κέντρων ( kéntrōn) and Latin cento -- the linguistic historical relationship between the words is a matter of contention [20. 11-13] -- have in common, even though their meanings do not quite cover the same fields, the fact that they describe a quilt made of remnants of used material sewn together, and then in the figurative sense a text that was assembled of disparate verse parts (up to one and a half verses) from well-known poets to form a new continuous meaningful …

Uranius

(384 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Οὐράνιος/ Ouránios). [German version] [0] Usurper, mid 3rd cent. L. Iulius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus U. Antoninus, usurper, who had coins minted in Emesa in 253/4; very likely identical with the priest of Aphrodite Sampsigeramus (Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 296 f.) who warded off an attack on Emesa by the Persian army in 253, in the course of which their leader (in the text Sapor [1] I himself) was killed. It may be that Or. Sib. 13,158-171 and IGLS 1799-1801 also refer to these events. When with Valerianus' [2] d…

Apophthegma

(466 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀπόφθεγμα ( apóphthegma), Latin facete dictum, also sententia: with reference to a certain situation, often a difficult one, these have a claim to authenticity; they are usually short, often enigmatically formulated expressions -- as already in the earliest apophthegms that have survived from Theramenes (Xen. Hell. 2,3,56), Anaxagoras (Aristot. Metaph. 1009b 26), Pittacus (Aristot. Rh. 1389a 14-16), Stesichorus (Aristot. Rh. 1395a 1-2). In this way the apophthegma differs from the related   chreia , the  aphorism …

Megaclo

(84 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μεγακλώ; Megaklṓ). Daughter of the Lesbian king Macar. In a rationalistic interpretation, the Lesbian local historian Myrsilus of Methymna represents her (FGrH 477 F 7, cf. Arnob. 3,37) as the founder of the seven Lesbian Muses: she taught seven slave women to celebrate the deeds of ancient times with lyres, thus softening the grudge the king held against his wife. In gratitude, M. erected bronze statues in their honour in a sanctuary and instituted cult worship. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Prooemium

(1,192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Concept Greek προοίμιον/ prooímion, (tragedy:) φροίμιον/ phroímion, Latin prooemium, prohoemium: 1) hymn to the gods (as an opening), 2) introductory section of a poem, 3) beginning of a speech, 4) introduction. As was already realized in Antiquity [8. 19], prooímion is etymologically related to οἴμη ( oímē, ‘song’, ‘story’, Hom. Od. 8,74; 8,481; 22,347) and οἶμος ( oȋmos, ‘stripe’, Hom. Il. 11,24; ‘path’ = ‘song’, H. Hom. 4,451 [4. s. v. οἴμη]). Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] II. Greek literature 1) In Greek poetry, the so-called Homeric Hymns

Scylax

(311 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σκύλαξ; Skýlax). [German version] [1] From Caryanda, explorer 519/18 BC S. from Caryanda. Discoverer of shipping routes and geographer, in 519/512 BC [5. 78] in the service of Darius [1], he sailed  down the Indus [1] from Caspapyrus to the Indian coast, then - rounding the Arabian peninsula for the first time - through the Erythra Thalatta [1] to modern Suez (Hdt. 4,44) in 30 months [1. vol. 1, 33, 52 f.; 1. vol. 2, 14 f.; 2. 622 f.]. S. wrote about Heraclides of Mylasa (Suda s.v. Σ.), and therefore died after 480 BC ([2. 634 f.]). Seven fragments on India (FGrH 709) are ascribed to his Pe…

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (Periegetes), P., in his Description of the Earth (γῆς περίοδος/ gês períodos, Harpocr. 152,2), probably discussed the entire Mediterranean region, not only the coasts, as in a periplous

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…
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