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(2,870 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, in the sense of kalām Allāh the Word of God, must here be distinguished from 1) kalām meaning ʿilm al-kalām [ q.v.], “defensive apologetics”, or “the science of discourse” (on God); and 2) kalima [ q.v.] which, in the expression kalimat Allāh , means “a” (single) divine utterance. Kalām Allāh is found at least three times in the Ḳurʾān (II, 75, IX, 6, XLVIII, 15). God spoke to the prophets (II, 253); He spoke “clearly” to Moses (IV, 164, VII, 143), who had been chosen to transmit His messages and His Word (VII, 144); God…


(1,295 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, unjust man, guilty of fisḳ ,—that is to say, one who has committed one or several “great sins” ( kabāʾir ). Most of the authors of ʿilm al-kalām ¶ avoid extending the term fāsiḳ to the believer who is guilty only of “lesser sins” ( ṣag̲h̲āʾir ). The “name and status” ( al-ism wa ’l-ḥukm ) of the fāsiḳ is one of the cardinal points discussed by the kalām . Its origin goes back to the battle of Ṣiffīn and to the question which believers then raised, as to the destiny on earth and the future destiny of the Muslim leader, and hence of all Muslims who sinned. Two initial trains of thought: a) the K̲h̲ārid…


(1,574 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, choice. For the use of the word as a juridical term, see k̲h̲iyār and naṣṣ ; in literary criticism, see naḳd ; in the sense of “elder”, see s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ . The immediately following article deals with the philosophical and theological senses of the word. As a philosophical term, ik̲h̲tiyār means free preference or choice, option, whence: power of choice, free will. The word itself is not Ḳurʾānic but is common in the vocabulary of ʿilm al-kalām and fiḳh. The VIIIth form of the verb is, however, used in the Ḳurʾān, always referring to a divine act. “I have chosen you ( ik̲h̲tartuka


(2,327 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
may be considered as the maṣdar of karuma “to be generous, be beneficent, be karīm (one of the “99 Most beautiful names of God” [see al-asmāʾ al-ḥusnā ]). The root KRM appears frequently in the Ḳurʾān, and God is called there al-Karīm “the Generous One”; the actual term karāma is not however found there. If it was later adopted as a synonym of the maṣdars of forms II and IV ( takrīm and ikrām ), this seems very likely to have come about through phonetic assimilation to the Greek χάρισμα. In the technical vocabulary of the religious sciences, karāma (pl. karāmāt ) from now …


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B. | Gardet, L.
is the formula biʾsmi llāhi l-raḥmāni l-raḥīmi , also called tasmiya (to pronounce the [divine] Name). Common translation: “In the name of God, the Clement, the Merciful”; R. Blachère’s translation: “In the name of God, the Merciful Benefactor”, etc. The formula occurs twice in the text of the Ḳurʾān: in its complete form in Sūra xxvii, 30, where it opens Solomon’s letter to the queen of Sheba: “It is from Solomon and reads: In the name of God, the Merciful Benefactor”; on a second o…


(2,071 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de | Gardet, L. | Berque, J. | Ed.
(a.). 1. ʿAmal , performance, action, is usually discussed by the speculative theologians and philosophers only in connection with belief [see ʿilm, īmān] or with ʿilm and naẓar . From Hellenistic tradition was known the definition of philosophy as the "knowledge of the nature of things and the doing of good" (cf. Mafātīḥ , ed. van Vloten, 131 f.). Many Muslim thinkers have emphasised the necessity or at least the desirability of this combination (cf. Goldziher, Kitāb Maʿānī al-Nafs , 54*-60*). But it is the intellectualism of the Greek philosophy, in…


(406 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, Gehenna (Hebrew gēhinnōm , valley of the Gehenna); the Arabic word evokes etymologically the idea of “depth” (cf. infernus ). Used very often in the Ḳurʾān as a synonym of nār (“fire”), d̲j̲ahannam must accordingly be rendered by the general idea of Hell. The same is true in traditions. Exegetists and many treatises on kalām (or taṣawwuf ) were, subsequently, to give it a particularized connotation. The description of the Muslim Hell, the problems relating to it and consequently the references to verses in the Ḳurʾān mentioning d̲j̲ahannam, are considered in the article nār: here only …


(770 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
(pl. ad̲j̲zāʾ), part, particle, term used in the technical language of kalām and of falsafa ¶ to describe the (philosophical) atom in the sense of the ultimate (substantial) part, that cannot be divided further, al-d̲j̲uzʾ allad̲h̲ī lā yatad̲j̲azzāʾ (cf. al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī, Taʿrīfāt , ed. Flügel, Leipzig 1845, 78); al-d̲j̲uzʾ al-wāḥid is sometimes used. Synonym: “elementary and indivisible matter”: d̲j̲awhar fard ; al-d̲j̲awhar al-wāḥid allad̲h̲ī lā yanḳasim .—For other definitions of vocabulary see d̲h̲arra . Atomistic conceptions of the world (philosophical atomism) …


(681 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, the act of adhering firmly to something, hence a firmly established act of faith. In its technical sense, the term denotes firm adherence to the Word of God. It may be translated in European languages by the words “croyance”, “belief”, “Glauben”, with the proviso that this “belief” is not a simple “opinion” or “thinking” ( pensée ), but is the result of a deep conviction. As the root tʿ-ḳ-d indicates, the idea of a “knot”, a bond established by contract, persists. The VIIIth verbal form combines with this a greater measure of firmness and coherence. Iʿtiḳād recurs m…


(590 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Gardet, L.
, a word used only once in the Ḳurʾān (CVIII, 1: “Yes, we have given you al-kawt̲h̲ar” ); the short Sūra CVIII is given the name surāt al-kawt̲h̲ar . The word comes from the root K-T̲H̲-R “to be abundant” in the fawʿal formation, which is not rare ( e.g. nawfal: other examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik , i, 34). The kawt̲h̲ar which occurs in ancient ¶ poetry (see quotations in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorāns , i, 92) means “abundance”. Some ancient writers of tafsīr interpret kawt̲h̲ar in Ḳ…


(7,304 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L. | J. Jomier
, submission, total surrender (to God) — maṣdar of the IVth form of the root S L M . I. Definition and Theories of Meaning. 1.—Ḳurʾānic references. The “one who submits to God” is the Muslim, of which the plural Muslimūn occurs very often throughout the sūras. Islām , on the other hand, occurs only eight times there; but the word must be considered in conjunction with the fairly common use of the verb aslama in the two meanings which merge into one another, “surrender to God”(aninner action) and “profession of Islām” , that is to say adherence to the message of the Prophet. The eight occurrences of Is…


(2,026 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another or for oneself ( li...), or else against someone ( ʿalā ...); hence: prayer of invocation, calling either for blessing, or for imprecation and cursing, connected with the Semitic idea of the effective value of the spoken word. Cf. Ḳurʾān XVII, 11: “Man prays for evil as he prays for good”.— Duʿāʾ therefore will have the general sense of personal prayer addressed to God, and can often be translated as “prayer of request”. I.—The scope and practice of duʿāʾ . 1. In the Ḳurʾān, duʿāʾ always keeps its original meaning of invo…


(4,017 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
(a.), the action of raising oneself, of rising, and of resurrection. The root ḳ-w-m is employed very frequently in the language of the Ḳurʾān. Ḳiyāma occurs there seventy times, always in the expression yawm al-ḳiyāma “the day of resurrection”. The resurrection of bodies follows the annihilation of all creatures ( al-fanāʾ al-muṭlaḳ ), and precedes the “judgment” ( dīn ), the “day of judgement” ( yawm al-dīn ).This will be the Last Hour ( al-sāʿa ). Al-sāʿa , yawm al-ḳiyāma and yawm al-dīn, taken as a whole constitute one of the “necessary beliefs” which determine the content…


(772 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, pl. afkār , thought, reflection. The Ḳurʾān employs the 2nd and 5th forms of the root fkr , to urge men “to reflect”. In the vocabulary of falsafa and ʿilm al-kalām , the maṣdar fikr denotes the intellectual faculty in the act of thought, reflecting upon an object of intellection. It is distinguished from idrāk , the intellectual faculty of grasping, of perception. The result of the operation of fikr is expressed by the noun of unity fikra . In taṣawwuf , fikr is used habitually in contrast to d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], recollection. Fikr can thus be translated by reflectio…


(1,881 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Gardet, L.
, proper name of the devil, probably a contraction of διάβολος. A different etymology has been suggested by D. Künstlinger, in RO, vi, 76 ff.; ¶ the Arab philologists consider that Iblīs derives from the root bls , “because Iblīs has nothing to expect ( ublisa ) from the mercy of God”. He is also known as ʿAduww Allāh (the enemy of God) and al-ʿAduww (the Enemy). Finally he is given the common name of al-s̲h̲ayṭān [ q.v.]. In the Ḳurʾān he appears at two points in the story of the beginning of the world. (1) When God had created Adam [ q.v.] from clay and had breathed into him the spirit of life…


(860 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Gardet, L.
, Abū ’l-Maʿālī ʿAbd al-Malik , son of the preceding, celebrated under his title of Imām al-Ḥaramayn, born 18 Muḥarram 419/17 February 1028 at Bus̲h̲tanikān, a village on the outskirts of Nīsābūr; after his father’s death, he continued the latter’s teaching even before he was twenty years old. He was connected with the school of ʿilm al-kalām inaugurated by Abū ’l-Ḥasan al-As̲h̲ʿarī at the beginning of the 4th/10th century. But ʿAmīd al-Mulk al-Kundurī, vizier of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Tug̲h̲rul Beg, declared himself against This “innova…


(13,436 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, God the Unique one, the Creator and Lord of the Judgment, polarizes the thought of Islam; He is the sole reason for its existence. ¶ Allāh was known to the pre-Islamic Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities, possibly the supreme deity and certainly a creator-god (cf. Ḳurʾān, xiii, 16; xxix, 61, 63; xxxi, 25; xxxix, 38; xliii, 87). He was already known, by antonomasia, as the God, al-Ilāh (the most likely etymology; another suggestion is the Aramaic Alāhā ).—For Allāh before Islam, as shown by archaeological sources and the Ḳurʾān, see ilāh . But the vague notion of supreme (not sole) di…


(1,111 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, pl. afʿāl , actuation, act, and sometimes the result of an act, that is to say effectuation, effect. From its current usage in Arabic, this word very quickly became a technical term ( iṣṭilāḥ ), not only in grammar but also in falsafa and in ʿilm al-kalām . If ʿamal [ q.v.] designates the realms of ‘doing’ and ‘acting’ (whence ‘work’, human acts, and moral action), and thus has at least in its last meaning an ethical connotation, fiʿl refers above all to noetic and ontological values: the fact of actuating, of passing (or causing to pass) to the per…


(47 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
(Ḳurʾānic term), “pious goodness” (R. Blachère’s translation; see Ḳurʾān, ii, 189). In the analysis of the spiritual states ( aḥwāl ) and the attitude of the soul towards God, it must at the same time be compared with and distinguished from taḳwā [ q.v.]. (L. Gardet)


(1,294 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
The IVth form adds to the double idea of the root—purity and salvation—that of “dedicating, devoting or consecrating oneself” to something. Ik̲h̲lāṣ is pre-eminently an interior virtue of the faithful Muslim, which implies both the unadulterated purity (and thus sincerity) of religious actions, pure (exclusive) worship given to God and pure (absolute) devotion to God and the Community of Believers. The perfection of one’s adherence, and witness, to faith is gauged by ik̲h̲lāṣ and iḥsān (uprightness in good). The Ḳurʾān often uses the participle muk̲h̲liṣ , …
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