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Tolerance and Intolerance

(6,428 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Gertz, Jan Christian | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ohst, Martin | Kronauer, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Tolerance and intolerance must be defined in terms of their relationship to respect, coexistence, indifference, acceptance, and prejudice. In the public context, they ¶ correspond to the presence or absence of freedom of religion. They originate in the claim to exclusive religious truth or else collide with it. Tolerance requires insight into the human ability to err and into the limits of human cognition with regard to faith, whereas intolerance rejects this insight. Following Gerlitz,…

Galling, Kurt

(229 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Jan 8, 1900, Wilhelmshaven – Jul 12, 1987, Tübingen) was an Old Testament scholar who studied in Berlin and Jena, where he received the Lic. theol. in 1921. He earned his Dr. phil. in 1923 with a dissertation in ancient Near Eastern archaeology, and gained his Habilitation himself in Berlin in 1925 and Halle in 1928. Galling was interim director of the commission of the Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für Altertumswissenschaften des Heiligen Landes (German Protestant Institute for the Study of the Holy Land in Antiquity) in Jerusalem in 1930. He taught in Halle ¶ (1930–1…


(472 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] a family of Basel academics …

Astruc, Jean

(416 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Mar 19, 1684, Sauve, Languedoc – Mar 5, 1766, Paris) belonged to the Christian branch of a Jewish family that had lived for centuries in southern France. He was the son of a Huguenot pastor who converted to Catholicism when the Edict of Nantes was revoked (1685) but became a Protestant again before his death. Originally trained as a physician (professor of medicine at T…

Graf, Karl Heinrich

(257 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1815, Mulhouse, France - Jul 16, 1869, Meißen), a theologian and orientalist, worked as private tutor in Paris from 1839 to 1843, as teacher of Hebrew and French in Meißen from 1847 t…

Witter, Henning Bernhard

(307 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Apr 7, 1683, Hildesheim – May 8, 1715, Hildesheim). After a brief period teaching in Helmstedt, Witter was appointed pastor in Hildesheim in 1707. He had been influenced ¶ by J. Spencer, H. v. der Hardt, and J. Clericus; a study trip to Holland brought him into contact with the biblical criticism of the early Enlightenment (Biblical scholarship: I, 4). His major work, never completed, was his Iura israelitarum in palaestinam terram chananaeam commentatione in Genesin perpetua sic demonstrata . . . (1711). He planned to treat the whole Pentateuch, but publi…

Rite and Ritual

(6,139 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Stausberg, Michael | Schwemer, Daniel | Gertz, Jan Christian | Hollender, Elisabeth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The terms The terms rite and ritual are often used synonymously, both in daily speech and in the specialized language of religious studies, leading to a lack of clarity. “Rite” is etymologically related to Sanskrit


(6,223 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Gertz, Jan Christian | Backhaus, Knut | Sanders, E.P. | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity I. History of Religions

Ilgen, Karl David

(158 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Feb 26, 1763, Sehna, Thurin…

People of God

(664 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] I. In preexilic times the expression “people of YHWH” denoted the state and people of Israel (People and nationhood: II). In the crisis in ancient Israelite YHWH religion that began with the defeat of Samaria in 722 bce the expression took on a new meaning that transcended political and territorial circumstances. Basic to this new meaning is the negation of the relationship, until then unquestioned and so hardly the subject of reflection, that YHWH as the God of the state and the dynasty had with his state and people…

People and Nationhood

(3,043 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Gertz, Jan Christian | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Grethlein, Christian | Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies People and nationhood are functional political terms that serve to define a collective e…

Kautzsch, Emil

(218 words)

Author(s): Gertz, Jan Christian
[German Version] (Sep 4, 1841, Plauen, Vogtland – May 7, 1910, Halle/Saale), Protestant theologian and scholar of ancient Near Eastern studies. After his graduation as Dr.phil. (1863) and Lic. (1868) in Leipzig, Kautzsch began his career as a school teacher and gained his Habilitation in Old Testament exegesis in 1869. He lectured with great success in Leipzig, Basel (from 1872), Tübingen (from 1879), and Halle (from 1888), where he officiated as rector in 1898/1899, as previously in Basel (1878/1879). His revised edition of W. Gesenius'…