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Pegasus

(517 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Πήγασος/ Pḗgasos, Lat. Pegasus). [German version] [1] A magical winged horse A magical winged horse, associated with the Corinthian hero Bellerophon. When Perseus [1] cuts off the head of Medusa, P. and Chrysaor [4] spring from her carcass (Hes. Theog. 280f.). P.'s father is Poseidon (Hes. Theog. 276). According to Hesiod, Poseidon sends P. to Bellerophon (Hes. fr. 43a,82ff. M.-W.), while according to others the latter receives from Athena a golden bridle that possesses the necessary magical power - only …

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Volusius

(944 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name from Etruria, whose bearers first appear in the 1st cent. BC. With V. [II 2] Saturninus the family was ennobled under the emperor Augustus and in the 1st cent. AD was able to amass considerable wealth (large burial site on the via Appia: CIL VI 7281-7393). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Haruspex (Haruspices) in the retinue of C. Verres 73-71 BC, several times appointed recuperator in - according to Cicero (Verr. 2,2,75; 2,3,28; 54; 137) - unfair lawsuits. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., Cn. Travelled with C. Pompt…

Ulpianus

(710 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Domitius U. Roman jurist of the Severan period from Tyrus in Syria (Dig. 50,15,1 pr.), probably a student of Papinianus [2. 208 f.] and teacher of Modestinus (Dig. 47,2,52,20). Under Septimius [II 7] Severus, he was assessor for his teacher, who had since become Praetorian prefect (SHA Pesc. Nig. 7,4; SHA Alex. Sev. 26,6), and was probably leader of the chancellery a libellis (the imperial judiciary office) from AD 205 to 209; praefectus [4] annonae (leader of the office ensuring food supply; Cod. Iust. 8,37,4) under Elagabalus [2]; Praetorian prefec…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Flavius

(4,130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian gentile name, derived from the individual cognomen Flavus (‘the blond one’) through the suffix of affiliation -ius, abbreviated form Fl. The bearers of the name that was already common in the Republican period were initially politically unimportant; F. [I 5] was the first one to attain to Roman nobility. In the Imperial period the name was spread further in the Roman empire as a result of the granting of citizenship by the Flavian Emperors Vespasian, Titus and Domitian (AD 68-96). In Late Antiquity (4th-6th cents.) F. was initially gentilicium of the family of  Consta…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Taruttienus Paternus

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist P. Taruttienus (Taruntenus) Paternus was the head of the chancellery ab epistulis Latinis in AD 171-173 and praetorian prefect under Marcus [II 2] Aurelius (Cass. Dio 71,12,3; 71,33,3) beginning in 177. After the latter's death, T. was relieved of his office about AD 182 and executed for high treason (SHA Comm. 4,7 f.). T. wrote the first legal work on the military ( De re militari, 4 books). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia iuris civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 335 f.  Kunkel, 219-222  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, …

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Venuleius

(355 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, variant of Venilius (Schulze, 378; 458). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Son of V. [4]. Cos. ord. in AD 123; procos. of Asia 138/9, SEG 36, 987. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège, 338-342. [German version] [2] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Senator. Son of V. [1]. Although a Patrician, after a praetorship he took on command of the Legio I Italica in Moesia Inferior. Cos. suff. under Antoninus [1] Pius; also a consular legate in Hispania Tarraconensis. Cos. ord. II in AD 168. Eck, Werner (Cologne) B…

Coruncanius, Ti.

(42 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Consul in 280 BC, first plebeian pontifex maximus in 254, first issued responsa publicly and in association with legal instruction (Dig. 1,2,2,35), did not, however, produce any writings (Dig. 1,2,2,38). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Wieacker, RRG, 528, 535.

Ofilius, Aulus

(139 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (epigraphically also Ofellius). This Roman jurist was a friend as well as a political agent of Caesar. He was a member of the equites, but never held an office. Next to Alfenus [3] Varus he was the most notable student of Sulpicius Rufus (Dig. 1,2,2,44), in whose footsteps he wrote an extensive commentary Ad edictum, which was, however, soon ousted from the market by the Edict commentary of Antistius [II 3] Labeo. Little is known about his Actiones (Pleas, 16 bks.), Ius partitum ('The law and its parts', 5 bks.) and De legibus ad Atticum ('On the laws, to Atticus', 20 bks.…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Tuscianus

(84 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] According to Dig. 1,2,2,53, T. and Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens followed Iavolenus [2] and preceded Iulianus [1] as heads of the Sabine law school at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD. Confusion with Iavolenus, who bore the cognomen Tossianus, is unlikely. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Nicht-literarische röm. Juristen der Kaiserzeit, in: K. Luig, D. Liebs (eds.), Das Profil des Juristen in der europäischen Tradition. Symp. F. Wieacker, 1980, 149-153  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 231-234.

Patricius

(421 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] British saint, 5th cent. (St. Patrick). P., a Briton, was abducted and taken to Ireland when he was 16; he was sold as a slave and fled six years later. Following a "voice of the Irish" (Confessio 23), he returned to Ireland (in AD 432?) as a bishop. He died on the 17th of March (461? or 491?). His charisma is attested by his autobiography, entitled Confessio [1. vol. 1, 56-91; 2; 4], and the prophetic, threatening Epistola ad milites Corotici [1. vol. 1, 91-102; 2; 4]. P. is marginal to Latin literature. His difficult Latin [6] was nourished by the Bible, whose …

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Ulpius

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [0] C. U. Antoninus Proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia (communication from M. Waelkens). Whether he is identical with the senator U. Antoninus who participated in the secular games of AD 204 [1] must remain an open question. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, s. v. U. (25), RE Supplementum 14, 935. [German version] [1] M. U. Arabianus Senator from Amastris [4] in Pontus; cos. suff.; consular governor of Syria Palaestina (Syria) between AD 187 and 190 (IGR III 85 = [1. 163, no. 16]); procos. of Africa around 200 (CIL VIII 15876). His son was M. U. Domitius…
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