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Amymone

(142 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀμυμώνη; Amymṓnē). Daughter of Danaus and Europa. By Poseidon she is the mother of Nauplius (Nostoi fr. 1; Hes. fr. 297; Paus. 2,38,2); a river in Lerna is named after her, and the spring of Lerna is ascribed to her (Str. 8,6,8; Paus. 2,37,1. 4). Hyg. Fab. 169 and Apollod. 2,14 recount her myth in the form which goes back to a satyr game, which is probably Aeschylus' A. Sent out by Danaus in order to find a spring in arid Argus, she accidentally startles a sleeping satyr; Poseidon…

Hyacinthus

(731 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ὑάκινθος; Hyákinthos).Hero whose tomb and cult are located in  Amyclae [1] near Sparta, but whose festival, the Hyacinthia, and the name of the month connected to it (hyakínthios, Cretan bakínthios/wakínthios [1]) is known in many Doric cities. The widespread familiarity with H. indicates the hero's ancient, supra-regional significance. The name must be pre-Greek due to the suffix -nth-. Although the Amyclaean sanctuary is pre-Doric, it can be traced only from the late Mycenaean …

Abderus

(82 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Son of Hermes or Poseidon (Pind. Paean 2), Opuntic Locrian, favourite of Hercules and eponymous hero of the Thracian city Abdera. For Hercules he guarded the human-flesh-eating mares, stolen from the Bistonian king Diomedes, and in so doing, he was himself eaten by them. Hercules founded Abdera on his grave site (Apollod. 2,97) and instigated annually an agone, which was conducted without horse races (Philostr. Imag. 2,25). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography J. Boardman, s. v. A., LIMC 1.1, 1.

Baubo

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Βαυβώ; Baubṓ). According to a version of the Eleusinic myth attributed to Orpheus, she was an original inhabitant of Eulisis with the heroes Triptolemus, Eumolpus, Eubuleus and her husband Dysaules, who are visited by  Demeter on her search for his daughter. Like  Iambe in the version of the myth in the Homeric hymn, B. entertains the goddess with food and drink and then obscenely exposes her lower body in order to cheer her up (Clem. Protrepticus 20f.; Arnob. 5,25, who describes …

Ephesia Grammata

(261 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἐφέσια γράμματα; Ephésia grámmata, ‘Ephesian letters of the alphabet’). Designation for a series of words devoid of meaning ─ ( askion kataskion lix tetrax damnameneus aision or aisia) that was used orally and in writing for apotropaic and salvation-bringing purposes. Their name comes from the fact that they were engraved on the statue of Artemis of Ephesus (Paus. ap. Eust. Od. 19,247). They were spoken in  exorcism (Plut. Mor. 706 de) for the protection of a bridal couple which was ritually encircled (Men…

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Allogenes

(48 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀλλογενής; Allogenḗs, the ‘different’). Name of  Seth as son of Adam and Eve in Sethian  Gnosticism (Epiphanius, Panarii libri 40,7,2). His seven sons are the Allogeneis (40,7,5). Books are also ascribed to him, which are likewise called Allogeneis (39,5,1; 40,2,2). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Amphissus

(92 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄμφισσος; Ámphissos). Son of Apollo and  Dryope, the daughter of Dryops, ruler on Mount Oete, strong as an ox. A., as well as Aeolus' granddaughter Amphissa (Paus. 10,38,4), must be eponyms of the city of Amphissa in Ozolian Locris; however, while A.'s stepfather  Andreamon is regarded as founder of Amphissa, A. is founder of the city of Oete. In Amphissa A. founds temples for Apollo and the Dryads and sets up a sprinting agon (Ant. Lib. 32) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 A. Brelich, Gli eroi Greci, 1958, 94-106.

Anna Perenna

(227 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A festival was held in her honour at the Ides of March in her grove (Martial. 4,64; 16) at the first milestone of the Via Flaminia near the Tiber, which is characterized by a sacrifice for a good year ut commode liceat annare perennareque (Macrob. Sat. 1,12,6) and by both sexes drinking wine together in tents and grass huts (Ov. Fast. 3,523-540); the date, rites and portentous character indicate a festival of dissolution associated with the beginning of a new year. The origin and character of the goddess were just as uncle…

Iatros

(155 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Greek ἰατρός; iatrós, ‘physician’). [German version] [1] Physician Physician,  Medicine. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of  Apollo as healing god, esp. common in the Ionian east and the Greek colonies along the western coast of the Black Sea. In Olbia, Apollo I. has replaced the Milesian Apollo Delphinios from the Hellenistic period. This form of Apollo was adopted as Apollo Medicus in early Republican Rome. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Title of four Att. healing heroes Functional name and title of four Attic he…

Gelanor

(108 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γελάνωρ; Gelánōr). Mythical original king of Argus, son of Sthenelus (Paus. 2,16,1), whose only significance is that he abdicated the rulership to  Danaus (Apollod. 2,13); in Aesch. Supp. 266 he is called  Pelasgus. The change in dynasty took place either after a battle (Plut. Pyrrhus 32,9f., 404e-f) or by referendum (Paus. 2,19,3f.). A battle, understood as an omen, between a bull and a wolf, which the wolf wins, is crucial on both occasions. Danaus is in this way connected to Ar…

Asteria

(112 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] see Precious stones see  Precious stones Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Titaness Titaness, daughter of Coeus and Phoebe, sister of Leto, wife of the Titan Perses (Perseus, Persaeus). By Zeus, mother of  Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409; Apollod. 1,8; 21). In the battle of the giants in the Pergamene altar frieze she is inscribed between Leto and Hecate. A Delian myth explained the earlier names of the islands Asteria (Pind. Paean. 5,42) and Ortygia through the fall of A. into the se…

Augeias

(261 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αὐγείας, Αὐγέας; Augeías, Augéas). King of the Epeians (Hom. Il. 11,698), often of the Eleans or of Ephyra. His genealogy vacillates -- his father is often and from early on  Helius, with whom his name connects him (from αὐγέα, ‘shine, beam’); other names mentioned are  Poseidon or Phorbas, his mother is Hyrmine, his brother Actor. He is rich in herds of cows like his father Helius; his treasury was built by  Trophonius and Agamedes; to this is connected since the  Telegony a novell…

Acesis

(69 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄκεσις). Healing hero in Epidaurus ( akéomai ‘healing’), whom the Pergamens equated with Telesphorus, the Sicyonans with Euhamerion (Paus. 2,11,7). The Telephorus hymn inscription of the imperial period, from Athens, IG II/III ed. minor 3,1 4533,36 (Kaibel 1027) [1] also knows of this equation with Telesphoros. The classical form would be Akesios [2]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 Edelstein, Asclepius Vol. 1, 89 n. 50 2 Schwyzer, Gramm., 1953, 473.

Katabasis

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] I. Greek-Roman antiquity Katabasis (κατάβασις/ katábasis, ‘descent’, more precisely εἰς ᾍδου κ., ‘descent into the Underworld’; pl. katabáseis; since Isoc. Or. 10,20, cf. Hdt. 2,122,1). Katabasis is, as a specific form of the voyage into the other world, the (mythological) narration or (ritual) staging of a voyage into the Underworld, with the purpose of either finding a particular inhabitant (a dead person, a deity, or a monster), or gaining knowledge of the future (guarded by the subterraneans)…

Alcides

(48 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀλκείδης; Alkeídēs). Patronymic of Alceus = Alcaeus [1], therefore epithet of Hercules as grandson (Hes. Sc. 112) of Amphitryon and as son of Alcaeus. A. is also regarded as Hercules' real name, which was altered by the Pythia (Apollod. 2,73). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Galeotae

(163 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γαλεῶται; Galeôtai). Name of a Sicilian family of seers, probably from Hybla Galeatis/Gereatis (Paus. 5,23,6), whose members are linked with prophecies relating to the rule of  Dionysius I (Philistus FGrH 556 F 57 in Cic. Div. 1,39; Ael. VH 12,46). Myth associates them with  Telmissus, the location in Caria famous for its prophecy (Cic. Div. 1,91): the eponymous Galeos was said to be, like his brother Telmissus, the son of  Apollo and the Hyperborean princess Themisto. On the advi…

Anticlea

(70 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀντίκλεια; Antíkleia). Daughter of  Autolycus, wife of  Laertes, mother of  Odysseus and Ctimene. In Homer she died of anguish about her long-absent son; Odysseus speaks with her shadow in the Underworld (Hom. Od. 11). Post-Homer, Odysseus is also regarded as son of A. and  Sisyphus. She committed suicide on the false news of Odysseus' death (Hyg. Fab. 243). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography A. Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC 1.1, 828-830.

Archegetes

(183 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἀρχηγέτης; archēgétēs). ‘Leader’, functional title of heroes and epiclesis of Apollo and Hercules. In the case of heroes, A. indicates in particular the role of progenitor and patron -- examples are the heroes of Attic demes (Demosth. 43,66 [1]) and the Thracian horse-riding hero in northern Greece and in Pontus [2]. Apollo A. denotes Apollo as the main god of the Seleucid foundations. The basis for this is the god's role in the Seleucid dynasty [3], but the epiclesis as a descrip…

Codrus

(330 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κόδρος; Kódros). Son of  Melanthus, a mythical king of Athens. In the list of Attic kings, his role is primarily to establish the connection to the Pylian colonists of Ionia. According to a tradition common in the 5th cent. BC, his father, a Neleid, came to Athens as a refugee and was made king by the last descendant of  Theseus; C. followed his father. His only notable act was his voluntary sacrificial death in order to save the city: when the Dorians attacked Athens and an oracl…
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