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Hieromnemones

(176 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἱερομνήμονες; hieromnḗmones, singular hieromnḗmōn, ἱερομνήμων). Religious officials with wide-ranging duties. Aristot. Pol. 6,5, 1321b 35 counts them, together with mnḗmones, epistátai et al., as archives officers; Plut. Symp. 8,8,4 attests the title for the priests of  Poseidon Phytalmios in Leptis; this is an isolated instance. The copious epigraphical evidence shows that the hieromnemones in some places really were archivists, frequently organized festivals, conducted temple finances or looked after temple property; prominent hieromnemones were t…

Agrius

(196 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἄγριος; Ágrios), ‘the wild’. [German version] [1] Mythical Calydonian Calydonian, son of Porthaon and Eureite (Hes. fr. 10a 49; Euryte: Apollod. 1,63), brother of Melas and Oeneus (Hom. Il. 14,117; about this Alcathous Hes. fr. 10a 52 f.; cf. Apollod. loc. cit.). He dethrones Oeneus, is expelled by Diomedes and kills himself (Hyg. Fab. 175, 242); after others his sons too are the usurpers and are killed by Diomedes (Apollod. 1,77-8; Ant. Lib. 37) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Son of Odysseus and Circe Son of Odysseus and Circe, brother of Latinus and toge…

Atys

(152 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἄτυς; Átys). [German version] [1] Lydian proto-king Lydian proto-king, son of Manes and brother of Cotys. His sons are Lydus and Tyrsenus, the eponyms of the Lydians and Etruscans (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,27, cf. Hdt. 1,7; 94). A. is related to the god  Attis of Asia Minor, just as Cotys is with the Thracian goddess Cotys (Kotytto). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Son of the Lydian king Croesus Son of the Lydian king  Croesus. His violent death in the boar hunt on Mysian Olympus is stylized according to the manner of the Attis myth. Hdt. 1,34-45, ho…

Adranus

(49 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀδρανός) City deity of the Sicilian city of the same name. Founded by Dionysius I, with temple and dog sacrifice (Diod. Sic. 14,37,5; Ael. NA 11,20). According to coin evidence, A. is a river god [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, 1911, 119.

Lampadedromia

(399 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (λαμπαδηδρομία/ lampadēdromía, schol. Aristoph. Ran. 131; Ionian λαμπαδηφορίη/ lampadēphoríē, Hdt. 8,98; more commonly λαμπάς/ lampás since Hdt. 6,105; Pl. Resp. 328a and inscriptions) is the cultic agōn (contest) of the torch race, which was mostly performed as a relay race. In addition there were individual races, and in the cult of Bendis at Athens, a spectacular horse race. The ritual goal of the lampadedromía was ultimately the renewal of the fire; for this reason it always began at important altars. In antiquity, this renewal was unders…

Epiphany

(825 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἐπιφάνεια; epipháneia, ‘manifestation, appearance’) refers to the manifestation of a deity in a spontaneous vision, or during an actual ritual process ( Ecstasy), as well as in stories; such appearances are the essence of superhuman beings. Because divine existence mainly manifests itself in the active help given to human beings, deities, who had been helpfully present, were from the Hellenistic period onwards denoted with the  epiclesis ‘becoming apparent’ (ἐπιφανής,   epiphanḗs , Lat. praesens). Epiphany seems to have played an important role withi…

Iacchus

(322 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἴακχος; Íakchos). One of the deities of the Mysteries of  Eleusis [1]. I. is the personification of the ecstatic cultic cry ( íakchos, onomatopoetic) by the participants in the Mysteries during their procession from Athens to the Eleusinian sanctuary where they underwent initiation into the mysteries (Hdt. 8,65; Aristoph. Ran. 316-353). His image, which was kept in a temple of Demeter, Kore and I. by the Pompeion at the Sacred Gate (Paus. 1,2,4, probably identical with the Iaccheion Plut. Aristides 27,4), was carried ahead of this procession by the iakchagōgós (‘lead…

Apollo

(3,447 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀπόλλων [ Apóllōn]; Latin: Apollo). A., the eternally youthful Greek god of healing, divination, music and ephebes, worshipped as A. in Rome since the early 5th cent. BC and referred to as Aplu in Etruscan written records. From the earliest literary sources, he was always referred to as the son of Zeus and Leto, the younger twin brother of Artemis. The very widespread use of theophoric proper names in every era demonstrates his great popularity and the extent to which he was known. [1]. [German version] A. Etymology The etymology of the name -- the search for the origins and prima…

Areithous

(186 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀρηίθοος; Arēíthoos). [German version] [1] Arcadian hero Arcadian hero whose weapon is an iron club. Nestor tells how he killed the Arcadian  Ereuthalion, who carried A.s' club;  Lycurgus had taken it from A. in a narrow pass and given it to his follower Ereuthalion (Il. 7,137-150). Pausanias saw his grave in a narrow pass near Mantinea (8,11,4). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Club-carrier from Arne Shortly prior to this, but unconnected to Nestor's story, Menesthius is mentioned as son of A. the club-carrier from Arne, who was shot by Paris (…

Alcaeus

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἀλκαῖος; Alkaîos). The suggestive mythological name ( alkḗ, ‘strength’) is connected with Hercules. [German version] [1] Grandfather of Hercules Grandfather of Hercules, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Astydameia, the daughter of Pelops, father of Amphitryon and Anaxo (Hes. Sc. 26; Schol. Eur. Hec. 886). Also the form of the name Alceus appears to be attested, which is more compatible with the patronymic Alcides. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Original name of Hercules Original name of Hercules, altered at the command of the Delphic Oracle (Di…

Amata

(191 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Wife of Latinian king Latinus, mother of Lavinia. She opposes the marriage of her daughter to Aeneas, because she favours her nephew Turnus (Serv. Aen. 7,366), and is thus partly responsible for the war against Aeneas (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,64,2; Verg. Aen. 7,56 ff.; Origo gent. Rom. 13,5). Because she prematurely regards Turnus as dead, she commits suicide by hanging (Verg. Aen. 12,595 ff.) or starvation (Fabius Pictor ap. Serv. Aen. 12,603; HRR fr. 1, S. 112 no. 1). She either blinds or kills both her sons, because they supported Aeneas (Serv. Aen. 8,51). So the tra…

Alcyoneus

(262 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλκυονεύς; Alkyoneús). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: Giant Giant. He is regarded as the oldest (Lyr. adesp. 985 PGM), is domiciled in Pallene (loc. cit.) and does not die, as long as he remains in contact with his native soil. Thus, in the Gigantomachy, following Athena's suggestion, Hercules has to drag him away so as to be able to kill him (Apollod. 1,35 f.). On the Pergamum altar frieze Athena herself is dragging the winged A. away by the hair. It is said that he is buried under Vesuvius (Claud. Rapt. Pros. 3,185); the Neapolitans displayed his bones (Philostr. heroicus 9,15). I…

Carmen Arvale

(224 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Hymn used by the   Arvales fratres to accompany their dance ( tripudium) for  Dea Dia and  Mars (CLE 1). Whilst its earliest transmission is an inaccurate inscription from AD 218 [1. 644-64], the text does preserve some characteristics of the early language (Lases without changing the intervocalic -s- - > -r-). In its substance, it must precede quite substantially the early Augustan reform of the cult, even if it was developed under Greek influence [2]; in any case, it is unlikely to be an archaistic creation of the middle Impe…

Leukophryene

(148 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Λευκοφρυήνη; Leukophryḗnē). Epiclesis of Artemis of Magnesia on the Maeander, the chief goddess of the city; after an epiphany in the mid 2nd cent. BC, an impressive temple was built for her (Vitr. De arch. 3,2,6), a new cult statue was solemnly erected [1], a trans-regional festival with agon was inaugurated [2] and the sanctuary was given the right to give asylum (Tac. Ann. 3,62,1). At the same time L. is the name of the heroine (thus derived), who (as is often the case) is bur…

Exorcism

(944 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] In the strict sense, this is the ritual driving out of a demon ( Demons), who is causing an illness in the person possessed. The process primarily involves the use of verbal rites (ἐπῳδαί, carmina) (Isid. Orig. 6,19,55: sermo increpationis in diabolum ut excedat): the exorcist makes verbal contact with the demon and forces it to leave the person. The Greek root ἐξορκίζειν ( ex(h)orkízein), which originally merely meant ‘to swear’ (dating from Demosthenes; ἐξορκισμός; ex(h)orkismós, ‘oath’, Pol. 6,21,6), is understood in this context as ‘to conjure out’. In this sens…

Aquila

(439 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Military see  Ensigns Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) [German version] [2] Science See  Eagle; see  Constellations Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) [German version] [3] Proselyte from Sinope, Bible translator Proselyte from  Sinope, translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek ( c. AD 130). The source language orientation of the work stands in the foreground to the extent that many passages remain incomprehensible without knowledge of the Hebrew original. Specifically Hebraic syntactical structures are imitated, Hebrew concepts are repr…

Aonia

(91 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀονίη; Aoníē). Region of Boeotia, site of the Helicon, named after the ancient people of the Aones and their eponym Aon, the son of Poseidon (Schol. Stat. Theb. 134). In Greek-Hellenistic and especially in Roman poetry, derivations from this are used as learned designations for Boeotia (Callim. Fr. 2a 30 with schol.; Verg. Ecl. 6,65), Thebes (Call. h. 4,75 with Schol.), for Helicon (Verg. G. 3,11) and the associated spring of Aganippe (Verg. Ecl. 10,12) and also for the Muses (Ov. Met. 5,333). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Auson

(29 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αὔσων; Aúsōn). Son of Odysseus (or Atlas) and Circe (or Calypso). First king of the  Ausones (Serv. Aen. 3,171; 8,328 a.o). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Ceres

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A. Cult in early Italy Italian goddess who was connected especially with grain, as well as with the realm of the dead and who was equated early in Roman history with the Greek Demeter. Numerous inscriptions prove the cult's existence in central and southern Italy from the late 7th cent. BC onwards. Wherever it is possible to ascertain details, she is especially associated with grain (Faliscan inscription from the period about 600 [1. 241; 2. 43], Paelignian inscription from Corfinium [1. 204; 3], Oscan tablet from Agnone c. 250 BC [1. 147; 4], bust from Aricia w…

Iolaus

(547 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἰόλαος; Iólaos). [German version] [1] Nephew of Heracles Nephew of  Heracles, son of the latter's half-brother  Iphicles and the (shadowy) Automedusa. He accompanies Heracles on practically all his adventures (mainly as chariot driver), becomes the first Olympic champion (image in Olympia, Paus. 5,17,11), receives  Megara as wife from Heracles and finally kills  Eurystheus in Attica (Paus. 1,44,10, grave), for which he was specially rejuvenated for one day (Eur. Heracl. 843-863, perhaps following Aesch…
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