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Timocharis

(49 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Τιμόχαρις; Timócharis). Greek astronomer from the time of Ptolemaeus [1] I (around 300 BC), whose observations were used by Ptolemaeus [65] in his Sýntaxis (7,2 p. 12,24); cited six times by Proclus [2] in his Hypotýpōsis. Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography W. Kroll, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 1258 f.

Euctemon

(298 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] from Athens. Astronomer, meteorologist and geographer, is named together with  Meton as the discoverer of the 19-year lunisolar cycle. Together they observed, in the last third of the 5th cent. BC, solstices and equinoxes, the anomaly of solar movements and the length of the solar year, also the rising and setting of the planets ‘in Athens, on the Cyclades, in Macedonia and in Thrace’ (Ptol. Phaseis p. 67,6 Heiberg, cf. Anon. a. 379 CCAG V 1 [1904] p. 205,6 ἐν Ἀθήναις ( en Athḗnais) and Avienus Ora maritima 350 Atheniensis or 337 Amphipolis urbis incola). In Athens E. obse…

Nechepso

(214 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Νεχεψῶ; Nechepsȏ). N. and Petosiris (Πετόσιρις; Petósiris),are often referred to together as ‘the ancient Egyptians’ with N. on his own as ‘the king; ’they are the pseudonyms of the authors of a reference book on astrology written around 150-120 BC. Entitled Ἀστρολογούμενα ( Astrologoúmena) and couched in a veil of mystical terminology supposedly in iambic senarii, it contained all the important teachings on Hellenistic astrology at that early date. It is possible that there was only one single author, that is to say, the…

Manilius

(2,287 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman gens name, probably taken from the forename Manius, which in mss is frequently confused with Mallius, Manilius, Manlius. The family was significant in the 2nd cent. BC through M. [I 3] and [I 4]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. (or Manlius?), L. Writer, senator AD 97, [I 1] M. (or Manlius?), L. Senator in 97 BC, wrote about the Phoenix (as first in Lat.: Plin. HN 10,4f.), about natural wonders and sacred law. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius 1, 605f. [German version] [I 2] M., C. People's tribune in 66 AD People's tribune in …

Zodiac

(3,907 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
(Zodiakos: ζῳδιακὸς κύκλος/ zōidiakós kýklos, Lat. zodiacus or signifer, literally: 'circle of animals'). Name     Name     Name     Melothesia     Twelve Gods     English     Greek     Latin     Ram     Kriós     Aries     Head     Minerva     Bull     Taûros     Taurus     Neck     Venus     Twins     Dídymoi     Gemini     Shoulders, arms     Apollo     Crab     Karkínos     Cancer     Chest     Mercurius     Lion     Léōn     Leo     Flanks     Iuppiter     Maiden     Parthénos     Virgo     Abdomen     Ceres     Scales     Zygós (Chēlaí)     Lib…

Meton

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέτων; Métōn). [German version] [1] Son of Empedokles, who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC Meton came from Acragas, he was the son of one Empedocles who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC, and father of the famous philosopher Empedocles [1]. After the overthrow of the tyrant Thrasydaeus in 472/1 Meton was a highly regarded figure in Akragas (Diog. Laert. 8,51-53; 8,72 = Diels/Kranz 31 A 1; Suda s.v. Empedokles = Diels/Kranz 31 A 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] From Athens, Astronomer und Geometrist end of. 4th cent.BC Astronomer and geometrist from Athens, son of Pau…

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Larginus Proculus

(64 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Πρόκλος; Próklos) is said, according to Cass. Dio 67,16,2, to have foretold the death of Domitian in Germania; he was condemned in Rome but saved after Domitian had actually been murdered on the predicted day, and was richly rewarded by Nerva. Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography W. and H. G. Gundel, Astrologumena, 1966, 177 A. Stein, s.v. L., RE 12, 834f.

Astrology

(1,454 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
(ἀστρολογία; astrología). [German version] A. Term Astrology is the original and more natural name for the study of the heavens in general; until well into late antiquity it was not strictly demarcated from its rival word astronomía, which is closely linked to the Platonic school [24]. According to current understanding astrology is concerned with forecasts according to a specific position of the stars and, according to the mythical way of thinking, has available for this a comprehensive categorization system of space and time [10]. Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) [German version] B. Anc…

Horoscopes

(3,447 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Oestmann, Günther (Bremen RWG)
Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) [German version] I. History (CT) Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The term Horoskópos, 'hour observer', originally referred to the ascendant (zodiacal sign rising on the eastern horizon), later to the first 30° segment of the dodecatropus (twelve hour circle), and finally to the position of all the stars at a particular point in time. The ca. nine Egyptian and over 180 extant Greek horoscopes have been transmitted mostly on papyrus but also on ostracon or…

Analemma

(176 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (ἀνάλημμα; análēmma)‘Recording’, ‘outline’, general: geometric or arithmetic method for determining the height of an object by measuring the angle; especially: projection of the heights of the sun with the help of a line network on the horizontal level of sundials with uneven length of hours, depending on the geographical latitude. The principle is based on the length ratio of a  gnomon to its shadow's length at midday on the equinox and three vertical reference levels in pairs: me…

Cleostratus

(191 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Κλεόστρατος; Kleóstratos) of Tenedus, astronomer, probably at the end of the 6th cent. BC, according to Theophr. De signis 4, he made his observations from the Ida mountain range. His work, of which two hexameters have been handed down, is called in the Vita Arati (Commentariorum in Aratum reliquiae 324.10 Maass) Φαινόμενα ( Phainómena) -- but there is no account in the differing catalogue of Achilleus (ibid. 79.2-6) --, in Ath. 7.278b Ἀστρολογία ( Astrología; handed down as gastrologia). According to Plin. HN 2.31, C. was the first to name the zodiacal s…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Kykloi

(254 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (κύκλοι; kýkloi, Latin cycli). The eleven celestial orbits (cf. Eudoxus fr. 62-69; Arat. 469-558; Geminus Astronomicus 5; Hyg. Poet. Astr. 4,1-10; Manil. 1,561-804; Achilles Astronomus, Isagoge 22-27), which are divided up according to various points of view. The only visible ‘orbit’ is the ‘oblique’ Milky Way, all others are invisible and probably of mnemotechnical origin. Parallel to the celestial equator run the northern and southern tropic and polar orbit, respectively. These fi…

Fixed stars

(1,142 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Sumerian and Akkadian languages do not distinguish between fixed stars and planets: for both MUL or kakkabu is used. Nevertheless the movement of the planets in relation to the fixed stars was known. Individual fixed stars certainly rarely had their own names (e.g. Li9-si4 = Antares), but most were grouped into  constellations. According to their position in the sky, they were initially roughly organized in the so-called  astrolabia (earliest example around 1100 BC), then more precisely in the astronomical c…

Cidenas

(103 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Κιδήνας; Kidḗnas, Babylonian Kidinnu), Chaldean astronomer, at the latest in the 2nd cent. BC, mentioned by Strabo as well as Sudines and Naburianus, discoverer of the equation 251 synodic months = 269 anomalistic months, originator of system B of the Babylonian moon calendar. His observations were probably used by  Critodemus (CCAG 5,2,128,15),  Hipparchus [6] and  Ptolemaeus.  Astronomy Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography Sources: P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylon.-hell. Lit., 1923, 121-130 O. Neugebauer, Astronomical Cuneiform Texts, 195…

Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Rhetorius

(267 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥητόριος; Rhētórios). R. was the last Greek-writing expert on astrology in Egypt before the Arab conquest in AD 640, . He played an important role in the transmission of older theories to the Middle Ages. His work, which has been preserved in compilations, probably even incomplete, of 90 and 117 chapters, draws in particular on Antiochus [23] and Teucer of Babylon, as well as on Claudius Ptolemaeus [65], Vettius Valens, Iulianus [19] of Laodicea and Olympiodorus' [4] commentaries …

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…
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