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Space

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Hüttemann, Andreas | van den Brom, Luco Johan
[German Version] I. Philosophy One of the first detailed discussions of space and its nature was undertaken by Aristotle, who rejected the atomists’ assumption of a void (Atomism: I) as well as Plato’s identification of space and matter. Aristotle defined the position of a body as the inner boundary of the body surrounding it (e.g. in the case of water, the inner surface of its container). According to Aristotle, therefore, a void or empty space cannot exist within or the world or outside it. In 1277 the proposition that God cannot move the world along a straight line was conde…

Materialism

(2,549 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Hüttemann, Andreas | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Philosophy – III. Theology I. History of Religion In one of the earliest usages in the German language, materialism was described as an “error,” i.e. “when a person denies the spiritual substance and refuses to recognize any other than the physical” (J.G. Walch, Philosophisches Lexikon, 1726, quoted from HWP V, 1980, 842). This negative characterization is the result of the philosophical and theological belief in the existence of spiritual entities (God, soul, eternal life) that transcend matter by vir…

Raum

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Hüttemann, Andreas | Brom, Luco Johan van den
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Eine erste ausführliche Diskussion räumlicher Begrifflichkeit findet sich bei Aristoteles. Er lehnt die Annahme der Atomisten (Atomismus: I.), es gebe das Leere, wie auch Platos Gleichsetzung von R. und Materie ab. Als Ort eines Körpers definiert Aristoteles die innere Grenzfläche des umschließenden Körpers (z.B. im Falle des Wassers die Kruginnenfläche). Einen leeren Ort oder R. kann es Aristoteles zufolge weder innerhalb noch außerhalb der Welt geben. – 1277 wur…