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Polyxena

(391 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολυξένη/ Polyxénē, Latin Polyxena). Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe. In the Cypria (PEG I fr. 34) she is killed by Odysseus and Diomedes [1] and buried by Neoptolemus [1]. Another tradition tells of her being sacrificed by the Greeks on Achilles’ [1] grave (Iliupersis argumentum PEG I p. 89; Hyg. Fab. 110; Apollod. epit. 5,23), because his spirit demands the sacrifice (Eur. Hec. 37-41; 107-115; Ov. Met. 13,441-448; Quint. Smyrn 14,234-245) and threatens to prevent the Greek fleet from retur…

Themisto

(137 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Θεμιστώ; Themistṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus, third wife of Athamas (Herodoros 31 F 38 FGrH; Apollod. 1,84; Ath. 13,560d; Nonn. Dion. 9,305-307; Tzetz. Lykophr. 22), who is the father of her several children. Her predecessors were Nephele [1] and Ino. When the latter returns, T., tries to kill her children (Hyg. Fab. 4,239, otherwise in Fab. 1). By means of a change of clothing Ino causes T. to kill her own children, whereupon T. takes her own life. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Ancestor of the Arcadians Daught…

Electra

(491 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἠλέκτρα; Ēléktra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The daughter of  Oceanus and  Tethys; wife of Thaumas, mother of  Iris and the  harpies Aello and Ocypete (Hes. Theog. 265ff.; 349; Hom. H. 2,418; Apollod. 1,10). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo The daughter of  Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo (Apollod. 2,19; Hyg. Fab. 170). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Daughter of Atlas and Pleione The daughter of  Atlas and Pleione. One of the  Pleiades. E.'s place of birth is the Cyl…

Penelope

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνελόπη/ Pēnelópē, Homeric: Πηνελόπεια/ Pēnelópeia, Latin Penelope, Penelopa). Wife of Odysseus. From antiquity, her name has been interpreted in two ways: according to one, P. means 'weaveress', in reference to the typical female activity which plays such a central role in the Odyssey, while according to the other, her name is derived from pēnélops ('duck'), with the explanation that she had allegedly been thrown into the sea by her parents and had been saved by ducks. For an etymological explanation of P.'s name, see [1]. P. was the daughter of the Arcadian ki…

Alcestis

(207 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἄλκηστις; Alkēstis). Daughter of  Pelias and Anaxibie (Hom. Il. 2,714). Her participation in the supposed rejuvenation of Pelias (Diod. Sic. 4,52,2; 53,2; Hyg. Fab. 24) does not fit with A.'s hand being asked of Pelias by  Admetus of Pherae -- which with Apollo's help was successful. Admetus can only escape the death he is to suffer, according to later sources (Apollod. 1,105) because of a neglected sacrifice, if someone dies in his place. Only A. declares herself prepared to do t…

Thallo

(69 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Θαλλώ; Thallṓ). One of the Horae, the daughters of Zeus and Themis (Hes. Theog. 901-903; Hes. Op. 74 f.). The assignment of T. to the Horae or to the Charites is controversial, as are the number and names of the Horae (Hyg. Fab. 183; Paus. 9,35,1-4; Poll. 8,106). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography A. Lesky, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1214 f.  V. Machaira, s. v. Horai, LIMC 5.1, 502 f.; 5.2, 344-368.

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph in Corinth, equated by some authors with the daughter of the local king  Creon, who otherwise is called  Creus…

Hesione

(209 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἡσιόνη; Hēsiónē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, wife of  Prometheus (Aesch. PV 558). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Wife of Nauplius Wife of  Nauplius, mother of  Palamedes (Apollod. 2,23). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Progenitor of the Trojan royal house Wife of  Atlas [2], mother of  Electra [3], progenitor through her grandson  Dardanus [1] of the Trojan royal house. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [4] Sister of Priamus Daughter of the Trojan king  Laomedon, who has to deliver her up to a sea …

Deianira

(390 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δηιάνειρα; Dēiáneira). Mythical daughter of king Oeneus of Calydon (Soph. Trach. 6f.) or of Dionysus (Apollod. 1,64; Hyg. Fab. 129) and  Althaea. After the death of her brother  Meleager, D., unlike her sisters, retained her human form (Ov. Met. 8,542ff.; Ant. Lib. 2 after Nicander; Hyg. Fab. 174). The river god Achelous wooed her; then  Heracles, who had heard Meleager singing D.'s praises, also arrived on the scene as a suitor (Pind. Fr. 249aSM; Bacchyl. 5,165ff. SM). Heracles d…

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …

Aglaurus

(296 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἄγλαυρος, also Ἄγραυλος; Áglauros, Ágrauros). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter the first king in Attica Daughter of  Actaeus, the first king in Attica, spouse of  Cecrops, mother of  Erysichthon, of   Aglaurus [2],  Herse and  Pandrosus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops. Athena entrusts Erichthonius to A. and her sisters in a chest guarded by snakes, forbidding them to open it, which A. and Herse do nonetheless. T…

Auge

(160 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αὔγη; Aúgē). Daughter of king Aleus of Tegea, who had made her a priestess of Athena [1. 368-385] in order to force her into chastity, as an oracle had predicted that her son would murder her brothers. She was raped by  Heracles (Hes. fr. 165 Merkelbach-West, Apollod. 2,146f.). Aleus discovered her pregnancy and had her thrown into the sea, together with her son  Telephus. Washed ashore in Mysia, she married king Teuthras (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 29a, b). According to Soph. and Eur., Tel…

Rhoeo

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥοιώ; Rhoiṓ). Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1], sister of Molpadia [1] and Parthenus [2]. After the sisters fail to guard their father's newly produced wine, they throw themselves into the sea and are rescued by Apollo, who fathers Anius with R. Staphylus locks the pregnant R. in a chest, which comes ashore in Delos (or Euboea, Tzetz. Lycoph. 570), where Apollo tends to his son (Diod. 5,62 f.; Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 11,17; Lycoph. 570). In the story of the Argive Lyrcus,…

Laonome

(90 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαονόμη; Laonómē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Guneus Daughter of Guneus, wife of Alcaeus [1] (other names are also mentioned), mother of Amphitryon (Paus. 8,14,2; Apollod. 2,50). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Amphitryon and Alcmene Daughter of Amphitryon and of Alcmene, sister of Heracles [1], wife of the son of Poseidon Euphemus (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,79). In Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 13) she is associated with the god of the Underworld Hodoedocus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography K. Meuli, s.v. L. (1)-(2), RE 12, 758.

Meliboea

(423 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Μελίβοια/ Melíboia, Latin Meliboea). [German version] [1] Heroine Heroine, known within the Leto cult of Argos as Chloris [2] (on the aition: Paus. 2,21,9f.). In the Demeter cult of Hermion(e), Kore ( Persephone) bears the byname M. (Ath. 14,624e, the passage is textually disputed). M. first appears in Hom. Od. 11,281-287 as the daughter of Amphion [1], later also as the daughter of Niobe (Apollod. 3,47) and spouse of Neleus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 117). Ath. 13,557a mentions her as the spouse of Theseus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography R. Carden, The Papyrus Fragments of …

Pero

(125 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πηρώ; Pērṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neleus and Chloris Daughter of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4], with twelve brothers, including Nestor [1]. Neleus demands Iphiclus' cattle as a bride price for P. Melampus [1] delivers the cattle for his brother Bias [1], who is given P. as his bride (Hom. Od. 11,281-297; 15,231-238; Apoll. Rhod. 1,120f.; Paus. 4,36,3; 10,31,10). Several of the couple's sons are part of the Argonaut campaign (Apoll. Rhod. 1,118-120). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Mother of the river god Asopus Mother by Poseidon of the river god Aso…

Penthesilea

(299 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πενθεσίλεια/ Penthesíleia, Lat. Penthesilea). Amazon (Amazons), daughter of Ares and Otrere (Aithiopis argumentum, fr. 1f. PEG I), who to expiate blood guilt - in some sources the murder of her sister Hippolyte [1] (Apollod. Epit. 5,1; Quint. Smyrn. 1,20-32) - enters the Trojan War and supports the Trojans after the death of  Hector (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 149; Diod. Sic. 2,46,5). She kills a number of Greeks (Prop. 3,11,14f.; Quint. Smyrn. 1,238-246) but is then defeated by Achilles […

Danae

(243 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δανάη; Danáē). Mythical daughter of  Acrisius, the king of Argus, and Euridice or Aganippe (Hom. Il. 14,319f.; Hes. fr. 129; 135MW; Hyg. Fab. 63). She was imprisoned by her father to keep her from any contact with the outside world following a pronouncement by the oracle that he would be killed by his grandson. Zeus approached D. in the form of a shower of gold and she became pregnant with  Perseus (Pind. Pyth. 10,44f.; 12,9ff.; Soph. Ant. 944ff.; Isocr. 10,59; Ov. Met. 4,610f.). …

Hecale

(317 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑκάλη; Hekálē). [German version] [1] Att. Heroine, hostess of Theseus Heroine of the like-named Attic deme on Pentelicon, who takes in  Theseus, who has been surprised by a storm on his way to fight the Bull of Marathon, very hospitably despite her poverty. As he returns after his victory, he finds her dead and out of gratitude establishes a cult to her and  Zeus Hekal(ei)os, at which the surrounding demes meet for an annual sacrifice.  Callimachus (Hecale fr. 230-377) and Plut. Thes. 14,6b-c (= Philocho…

Philomeleides

(61 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Φιλομηλείδης; Philomēleídēs). Mythical king of the island of Lesbos, who challenged those sailing by to a wrestling match. Odysseus defeated him, according to Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 in the fight, but according to Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 150 by deceit together with Diomedes [1]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. P., RE 19, 2519f.
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