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Aeneas

(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…

Origin myths and theories on the origin of culture

(2,363 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The relatively few ancient Oriental testimonials that can be regarded as OM provide important pointers to the self-image of a culture, but have not yet been discussed from this perspective. Aetiologies primarily with respect to festivals and cult centres are to be found in the Egyptian tradition [7], more rarely in the Mesopotamian [4. 551f., 559f.] and the Hittite tradition [4. 571]; in the OT, they are particularly common in Genesis (e.g. Gn 28: Bethel). Gods were sometimes considered the founders of those areas of culture that…

Seasons

(2,148 words)

Author(s): Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum)
(ὧραι, hôrai; tempora anni). [German version] I. Asia Minor/ Egypt The definition of seasons and of a year as a unit of time was largely governed by regularly recurring natural events, such as the floods of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia (a short vegetation period and summer drought, the topic of the Sumerian poem about the dispute between summer and winter, see Kindler 19, 604) and of the Nile in Egypt (Nile inundation, vegetation period, summer heat, each lasting for four months). The prevalent…

Period, Era

(1,276 words)

Author(s): Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum)
[German version] I. Basic facts Ancient texts on the sequence of various eras or ages of the world share interest in a wide-ranging periodization(Periods, division into), in which reference to the present can be made under aetiological, eschatological or teleological aspects. Several strands are connected in the complex history of the theme: a sequence of generations or races (γένη/ génē) or periods ( aetates, saecula) named for metals, the concept of a paradisiacal distant past under Kronos/Saturnus and its replacement with a period ruled by Zeus/Iuppiter, …

Jahreszeiten

(1,812 words)

Author(s): Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum)
(ὧραι, hṓrai; tempora anni). [English version] I. Vorderasien/Ägypten Die J. und die Zeiteinheit Jahr richteten sich v.a. nach den regelmäßig wiederkehrenden Naturerscheinungen, wie z.B. dem Hochwasser von Tigris und Euphrat in Mesopot. (einer kurzen Vegetationsperiode und der sommerlichen Dürre, Thema des sumer. Streitgedichtes von Sommer und Winter, s. Kindler 19, 604) und des Nils in Äg. (Nilüberschwemmung, Vegetationsperiode, Sommerhitze von je vier Monaten). Von den vorherrschenden Niederschlagsper…

Kulturentstehungstheorien

(2,017 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten Die recht wenigen altoriental. Zeugnisse, die als K. aufgefaßt werden können, bieten wichtige Hinweise zur Selbstsicht einer Kultur, sind aber noch nicht unter diesem Aspekt behandelt worden. Aitiologien v.a. zu Festen und Kultorten finden sich in der äg. [7], seltener der mesopot. [4. 551f., 559f.] und der hethit. Trad. [4. 571], im AT besonders häufig in Gn (z.B. Gn 28: Bethel). Götter können die ihnen unterstellten Kulturbereiche begründet haben: In Äg. wird dem Gott Thot die Erfindung von Schreiben und Rechnen …

Aineias

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basel) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] [1] Mythos Sohn des Anchises und der Venus, sagenhafter Stammvater Roms (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας; lat. Aeneas). Thrako-illyr. Name [17. 311 f.]. Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) [English version] A. Stammbaum und Mythos Sohn des Anchises und der Aphrodite (Hom. h. Veneris; Hes. theog. 1008-1010). Vollständige Genealogie in der Rede des A. an Achilleus (Hom. Il. 20,200-258, bes. 215-240); Stammbaum [1. 509]. Troia: In der Ilias ist A. neben den Söhnen Antenors Anführer der Dardaner (Hom. Il. 2,819-823), tapferer Kämpfer (de…