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Intention/Intentionality

(1,594 words)

Author(s): Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics I. Philosophy In the context of action theory, intention/ intentionality (from Lat. intentio) usually denotes an aim or purpose. Intentionality is understood both in the sense of the will that initiates actions and in the sense of the motive or motivation that guides both volition and action. In other philosophical contexts, the prevailing understanding of intentionality goes back to the turn of the 20th century in the work of E. Husserl, who drew in turn on his teacher F. Brentano. In his major work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, vo…

Evolution, Law of

(1,993 words)

Author(s): Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. History of Science – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. History of Science A fundamentally new understanding of human beings and nature from the end of the 16th century prepared the way for evolutionary thinking. In the new paradigm, which is regarded as one of the greatest scientific revolutions, a world without a final cause and which developed and changed ad infinitum was presumed. Since C.R. Darwin, the mechanism of evolution has been described as variation and natural selecti…

Democracy

(2,082 words)

Author(s): Letto-Vanamo, Pia | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Concept and History – II. State and Governmental Forms – III. Presuppositions for Democracy. – IV. Democracy as a Universal Ideal of Life in Society – V. Democracy from a Christian Perspective. I. Concept and History “Democracy” designates a particular mode of legitimate political dominion. The literal translation of Gk δημοκρατία/ dēmokratía is “power/dominion of the people.” The prototype is ancient Greece, especially Athens. Aristotle understood democracy as a …

Voluntarism

(950 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Schröder-Field, Caroline
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Voluntarism is a descriptive category in the history of ideas and society that came into use in Germany in the 1880s (first by F. Tönnies, VWPh 7, 1883, 169), and from there spread to the French- and English-speaking worldareas. The term can be applied to very different historical phenomena: to the behavior of individuals or groups, metaphysical views, and psychological models (Psychology). In politics it denotes procedures, attitudes, plans and programs that, regardless of current c…

Behaviorism

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Loder, James E. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Practical Theology – III. Ethics I. Concept Behaviorism has tried, like its historical antecedents, to explain human nature on the model of the animal or the machine. In 1913, John-Broadus Watson (1878–1958) established behaviorism as a modern research trend in psychology. Following Darwinist evolution theory, behaviorism argues that we can understand and control a…

Voluntarismus

(922 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Schröder-Field, Caroline
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch »V.« ist eine Beschreibungskategorie der Ideen- und Sozialgesch., die im vorletzten Jahrzehnt des 19.Jh. in Deutschland aufkam (erstmals bei F. Tönnies, VWPh 7, 1883, 169) und sich von hier aus auch in den franz. und engl. Sprachraum ausgebreitet hat. Der Begriff kann auf verschiedenste gesch. Erscheinungen angewendet werden: auf Haltungen von einzelnen oder von Kollektiven, auf metaphysische Anschauungen oder auf Modelle der Psychologie. Im Blick auf die…

Achievement

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Nipkow, Karl E.
[German Version] I. Ethics – II. Education – III. Practical Theology I. Ethics With regard to processes in general, “achievement” refers to their efficacy. Ethics, however, speaks of achievement only with regard to actions (Action) – and not actions in general, but only actions that are ethically justified. This is possible only when two conditions are met. First: It must be possible …

Coherence

(1,778 words)

Author(s): Grube, Dirk-M. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Ethics I. Philosophy of Religion Coherence is essentially a syntactic relation that exists between various propositions, but not between propositions and reality. This relation is typically defined as an absence of contradictions between various propositions. More appropriate, however, is another definition of coherence as the logically and conceptually consistent integrability of certain propositions into a more comprehensive system of propositions. In a coherence theory of truth, truth is u…

Order

(2,247 words)

Author(s): Kather, Regine | Sieckmann, Jan-R. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Law – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Philosophy The concept of order (Gk τάξις/ táxis, κόσμος/ kosmos; Lat. ordo) is employed in natural philosophy, epistemology, and cultural anthropology. It refers to an arrangement of elements that stand in a particular relationship to one other and form the structure of a larger whole. The concept of order is particularly fundamental to cosmology: for Hesiod, the genesis of the cosmos takes place within “theogony,” and for Plato ( Tim.) through the transition from an undifferentiated primal state to a w…

Infallibility

(2,805 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Baumann, Urs | Hünermann, Peter
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Dogmatics and History of Doctrine – III. Ethics – IV. Catholic Understanding I. Fundamental Theology Infallibility, understood as unswerving inerrancy or being held unshakably in the truth, is a theme of both Reformation and Roman Catholic theology. Both traditions of Western theology affirm the NT statement that the Holy Spirit will guide the faithful and the community of believers into all truth (John 14:16; 16:13) and that the church is therefore “the pillar and bulwark of the truth” (1 Tim 3:15). 1. Reformation theology sees he…

System

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Angehrn, Emil | Danz, Christian | Herms, Eilert
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Von S. (griech. συ´στημα/sýstēma, »Zusammenstellung«) als einem strukturierten Ganzen, das aus Teilen zusammengesetzt ist, ist einerseits mit Bezug auf die Wirklichkeit, andererseits mit Bezug auf die Wissenschaft bzw. die Philosophie selbst die Rede. Im objektiven Sinn wird die Idee eines geordneten Zusammenhangs im antiken Denken für unterschiedliche Bereiche (Kosmos [Welt: II.], Organismus, Medizin, Musik, Ethik, Politik) geltend gemacht. Im methodischen Sinn wird…

Staat und Religion

(2,417 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard | Herms, Eilert | Kleine, Christoph
[English Version] I. Problem, religionswissenschaftlich Das Verhältnis von Staat und Religion ist in den westlichen Gesellschaften weniger durch die Verfassungen bestimmt – Religionsfreiheit ist überall ein konstitutives Grundrecht – als durch die hist. überkommene Situation. Dort nämlich, wo die großen Konfessionen einmal Staatskirchen waren oder noch sind, besteht bis heute eine Hierarchisierung der Religionen. Ohne Rücksicht auf das tatsächliche rel. Leben räumt der S. überkommenen Rel. materiell…

Ordnung

(1,868 words)

Author(s): Kather, Regine | Sieckmann, Jan-R. | Herms, Eilert
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der Begriff O. (griech. τα´ξις/ta´xis, κο´σμος/ko´smos; lat. ordo) wird in Naturphilosophie, Erkenntnistheorie und Kulturanthropologie verwendet. Als O. wird ein Gefüge von Elementen bez., die in einem bestimmten Verhältnis zueinander stehen und einen größeren Bereich strukturieren. Der Begriff O. hat v.a. in der Kosmologie eine fundamentale Bedeutung: Die Genese des Kosmos vollzieht sich für Hesiod in der »Theogonie« und für Plato im »Timaios« durch den Übergang von e…

Unfehlbarkeit

(2,507 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Baumann, Urs | Hünermann, Peter
[English Version] I. Fundamentaltheologisch U., verstanden als unverlierbare Irrtumsfreiheit bzw. unerschütterliches Gehaltensein in der Wahrheit, ist ein Thema ebenso reformatorischer wie röm. Theol. Beide Traditionen westlicher Theol. gehen dabei von der Affirmation des ntl. Zeugnisses aus, daß der Hl. Geist die Glaubenden und die Glaubensgemeinschaft in alle Wahrheit führt (Joh 14,16; 16,13) und daß die Ekklesia daher »die Säule und Grundfeste der Wahrheit« ist (1Tim 3,15). – 1. Die reformatorische Theol. erkennt darin Gestalten des ntl. Zeugnisses, daß d…

Normen

(1,874 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Alexy, Robert | Herms, Eilert
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Soziale N. sind die verinnerlichten, aber kontrollierten Verhaltensregeln einer sozialen Gruppe. Sie umfassen Regeln und Standards für Anstand und Sitte, d.h. für das rel., sittliche und rechtliche Verhalten. Anders als Ideale oder Werte sind N. meist spezifisch und konkret. Zur Bedeutung von N. gibt es unterschiedliche Theorien; es überwiegt die These, daß N. zur sozialen Kontrolle und der Erzeugung von Gruppensolidarität bzw. der kulturellen Identität dienen. Die Geltung von rel. und sittlichen N. wird meist durch …

Elite

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Münch, Richard | Jödicke, Ansgar | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Sociology – II. Comparative Study of Religions – III. Ethics I. Sociology “Elite” – from Lat. eligere “to elect” – designates a select group of persons who stand out from the crowd by virtue of distinctive features such as consanguinity, age (Old age), power, wealth, knowledge, technical, organizational or artistic skills (Competence), …

Power

(2,465 words)

Author(s): Zenkert, Georg | Herms, Eilert | Seiferlein, Alfred
[German Version] I. Philosophy In philosophical usage, the term power is perhaps more protean than any other. Its spectrum of meanings extends from subtle influence to threat backed by naked violence; it therefore encompasses such diverse phenomena as intellectual and spiritual power, the modern media, the economy, technology, political institutions, and military might. These attributions are arbitrary until the ¶ term is defined more precisely. Power is defined too broadly as possession of technical or technological tools and the ability to employ them…

State and Religion

(2,721 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard | Herms, Eilert | Kleine, Christoph
[German Version] I. The Problem In Western societies, the relationship between the state and religion is determined less by religion’s constitutional status – freedom of religion is a fundamental constitutional right everywhere – than by historical tradition. Where the major confessional bodies were (or still are) state churches, there is still a hierarchy of religions. Without regard to actual religious life, the state gives traditional religions a special status, materially and ideally. In the publ…

System

(1,872 words)

Author(s): Angehrn, Emil | Danz, Christian | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy A system (from Gk σύστημα/ sýstēma, “combination”) is a structured entity made up of parts; the term can refer to all reality as well as to science and philosophy themselves. In an objective sense, the idea of an ordered arrangement was used in various domains in antiquity – the cosmos (World: II), organisms, medicine, music,ethics, politics. In a methodological sense, the term is important in the history of modern philosophy, dominated in particular by two central themes: …

Norms

(2,005 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Alexy, Robert | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Social norms are the interiorized but controlled rules of conduct of a social group. They include rules and standards for decency and mores, that is, for religious, moral, and right behavior. Unlike ideals or values, norms are mostly specific and concrete. There are various theories of the meaning of norms; most widely accepted is the thesis that norms serve the development of social controls and group solidarity or cultural identity. Validity is generally claimed for religious and moral norms by appeal to a religious authority (go…
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