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Canytelis

(116 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Kanytella?). Large village (κώμη) within the chora of  Elaiussa (epigraphically only evident as Κανυτηλλέων or Κανυτηλιδέων δήμος; Kanytēléōn/ Kanytēlidéōn dḗmos [1. 49]), which, centred around a c. 60 m deep karst dolina on a hillside above the Cilician coast, was already in existence at the time of the Hellenistic priest-rulers of  Olba; a three-storey dynastic dwelling-tower dates from that period. From the late Hellenistic to early Byzantine periods, there are numerous residential buildings; at the s…

Sisium

(66 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίσιον/ Sísion, Σίσσιον/ Síssion). Town in Cilicia Pedias, modern Kozan. A 7th-cent. BC king of Kundi (Kyinda) and Sizu is documented here [1. 57 f.71]. S. was a border fortress of the Byzantines and the Arabs in the 8th-10th centuries, capital of the kingdom of Little Armenia (until 1375), an Armenian archbishopric. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 A. Erzen, Kilikien bis zum E. der Perserherrschaft, 1940 2 Hild/Hellenkemper, s. v. S.

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Pinarus

(69 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Πίναρος/ Pínaros), modern Deli Çayı. A river, dry in summer, rising in the Amanus mountains and flowing into the Issikos Kolpos (Bay of İskenderun) to the south of Issus. On its banks Alexander [4] the Great gained a victory over Darius [3] in 333 BC (Pol. 12,17,4f.; Arr. Anab. 2,10,1; 5; Str. 14,5,19). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Janke, Auf Alexanders des Großen Pfaden, 1904, 55-74  Hild/Hellenkemper, 380.

Cotenna

(88 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κότεννα; Kótenna). City in eastern Pamphylia. The name C. is possibly related to the Katenneis tribe that inhabited the mountainous region above Side and Aspendus [1]. In sympolity with Erymna, its western neighbour [2]; bishopric of Pamphylia I (with metropolis in Side) [3; 4. 242]. Modern Gökbel (formerly Menteşbey, Gödene). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Zgusta, 240f., 294 2 M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen zur histor. Landeskunde Zentrallykiens (Antiquitas 1/42), 1992, 137 3 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopol…

Cydnus

(123 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κύδνος; Kýdnos). Aside from Pyramus and Sarus, the third large river of the Kilikia Pedias. In front of its estuary it formed the so-called Ῥῆγμα ( Rhêgma, ‘chasm’), a lagoon that served as the harbour of  Tarsus and originally flowed through Tarsus, before it was diverted, after a flood, by Justinian I eastward around the town (Procop. Aed. 5,5,17). After bathing in its cold waters (impressive waterfalls north of Tarsus) Alexander the Great fell gravely ill (Arr. Anab. 2,4,7). In the Middle Ages C. was c…

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …

Tarsus

(522 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Alexander | Commerce | Ḫattusa | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ταρσός/ Tarsós, Ταρσοί/ Tarsoí, Latin Tarsus). City with river port in the west of Cilicia Pedias on the lower Cydnus, modern Tarsus in Turkey. T. was located on the route from Antiochia [1] through the Cilician Gates [1] to the western coast of Asia Minor, to Co…

Olba

(150 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Pompeius (Ὄλβα/ Ólba = Ὑρία/ Yría in Steph. Byz.?). Town in Cilicia Tracheia, 24 km north-northeast of Seleucia on the Calycadnus, modern Ura. In the 6th cent. BC, it was the capital of Pirindu (Meydancıkkale) until the the province of Cilicia was established in AD 72. O. was the centre of a temple state that stretched as far as the coast. The settlement around the temple of Zeus Olbios, situated 4 km to the west in Uzunca…

Diocaesarea

(118 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Διοκαισάρεια; Diokaisáreia). [German version] [1] Temple settlement Temple settlement around the Zeus sanctuary of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia, which became an independent town under Tiberius and later a diocese (suffragan of Seleucia on the Calycadnus). Archaeological finds: generous extension of the settlement with city walls, colonnade street, aqueduct, theatre, temple of Tyche; during the early Byzantine period the temple of Zeus was converted into a three-aisled colonnaded basilica. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. D. [German version] [2] …

Mandane

(155 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Μανδάνη; Mandánē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Medean king Astyages According to Hdt. 1,107, Xen. Cyr. 1,2,1 and Iust. 1,4,4, daughter of the Medean king Astyages, wife of the Persian Cambyses [1] and mother of Cyrus [2]. It seems that the dynastic link thus transmitted was meant to lend retrospective legitimation to the claims of Cyrus to the Medean (and, if M.'s mother was the Lydian princess Aryenis (Hdt. 1,74), also the Lydian) throne. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I and sister of Xerxes I According to the court story surviving in …

Corasium

(62 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κοράσιον; Korásion). Harbour in the Cilicia Trachea. Together with  Korykos [2], to which it was connected through korasiodrómos (messenger service), C. reached great prosperity in late antiquity without becoming a polis or a diocese; today's Susanoğlu. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography H. Hellenkemper, F. Hild, Neue Forschungen zu Kilikien (Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akad. der Wissenschaften: Philosoph.-Hist. Klasse 186) 1986, 311f.

Anemurium

(328 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Zenobia (Ἀνεμούριον; Anemoúrion) Town (modern Anamur) in  Cilicia Tracheia (Scyl. 102), situated on the cape of the same name on the southernmost point of Asia Minor, at the shortest crossing point to Cyprus (Str. 14,5,3; 6,3; Stadiasmus maris magni 197; Plin. HN 5,130). In 197 BC, it was seized by Antiochus III (Liv. 33,20), and in AD 52 by the Isaurian Cietae (Tac. Ann. 12,55). From the 1st cent. BC, it replaced Nagidus as the centre of the coastal region to its east. As Canadian excavations since 1965 have shown, A…

Scopelus

(64 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκόπελος; Skópelos). Foothills of the Amanus between Rhosus and Seleucia [2] Pieria (Ptol. 5,15,2) with the cape Ras al-Ḫinzīr. It formed the natural boundary, and in Late Antiquity, also the political boundary between Syria and Cilicia; in the Middle Ages, there were Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and Latin monasteries in this region. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s. v. Ras al-Hinzir, s. v. Skopelos.

Issus

(128 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander (Ἰσσός; Issós) City east of Cilicia Pedias between Amanides (Amanikai) and Ciliciae Pylae, today the settlement mound Yeşil Hüyük (formerly Kinet Hüyük), 2 km north-northwest of the mouth of the  Pinarus, where  Alexander [4] the Great defeated  Darius [3] III in 333 BC; later also called Nicopolis. In AD 194, Septimius Severus won a victory here over Pescennius Niger and had a triumphal arch known as a kodrigai (after quadriga) erected in Ciliciae Pylae to commemorate this. Nicopolis, conquer…

Pindenissus

(115 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] Fort in the Amanus range in Cilicia Pedias. In the course of defending the frontiers of his province Cilicia against the Parthians, Cicero as Roman proconsul in 51 BC fought against the indigenous peoples of the Amanus from Epiphaneia [1] and took Erana (chief town of the Amanus), Sepyra and Commoris. He then camped at Arae Alexandri (south of Issus), subjugated the remainder of the Amanus and, after a long siege, gained P., the high and strongly fortified oppidum of the Eleutherocilices (Cic. Fam. 2,10,3; 15,4,7-10; Cic. Att. 5,20,1: inhabitants called Pindenissitae; 5…

Elaeussa

(143 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἐλαιοῦσσα; Elaioûssa). This city in Cilicia Trachea, originally situated on an island 200 m from the shore, arose as  Diocaesarea [1] from a temple sanctuary belonging to Corycus, and is first attested in the early 1st cent BC. In 12 BC E. became the residence of Archelaus of Cappadocia, who had renamed E. Sebaste after his patron Augustus. In the 2nd cent. AD expansion onto the mainland, and extensive construction. In 260 conquered by t…

Neronias

(94 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Νερωνιάς/ Nerōniás). City in the east of Cilicia Pedias, modern-day Düziçi (formerly Haruniye). Possibly founded by Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene in honour of Nero (beginning of the city era in AD 51/2) at the site of Pindenissus (?). Probably already renamed Eirenoupolis during the time of Vespasian (AD 69-79). Diocese of Cilicia II (metropolis: Anazarbus); important border fortress of the Byzantines. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, 245-248  F. Hild, Eirenupolis in der Kilikia Pedias, in: G. Dobesch, G. Rehrenböck (ed.), Hundert J…

Xenagorou nesoi

(84 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ξεναγόρου νῆσοι/ Xenagórou nêsoi). Island group off the western coast of Lycia: the rocky islands of Sıçan (Byzantine Ochentres) and Yılan (Byzantine Dragonēsi) outside the bay of Kalkan between the island of Roge (Byzantine Rhō) and Patara ( Stadiasmus maris magni 245 f.). According to Plin. HN 5,131 ( Xenagora VIII) further islands could be meant by XN. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Delatte, Les Portulans grecs, 1947, 183, 254 F. Hild, H. Hellenkemper, in: TIB 8 (Lykien und Pamphylien), 2004 H. Treidler, s. v. X. n., RE 9 A, 1417.

Manaua

(72 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Μάναυα; Mánaua). Settlement in western Cilicia near the mouth of the Melas ( Pamphylia), with a river port for Side as well [1. 17-20], the modern Manavgat. In Late Antiquity also the name of a mountainous region in Isauria ( klíma; Georgius of Cyprus, 855). Diocese of Pamphylia I [2]. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 J. Nollé, Side im Altertum 1, 1993 2 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae, 1981.
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